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stefan
Linguist


Joined: 08 Jul 2007
Posts: 23
Location: Sweden
PostPosted: Mon Nov 12, 2007 12:44 pm
Post subject: Speech perception and some symptoms of schizophrenia.
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This is an ongoing attempt to understand an illness most people know very little about and I write in a forum like this because it's an illness profoundly linked to our ability to generate the event we call perception.

Approximately one percent of the world's population
(almost 70 million people) are at some point in their lives just like me right now (several voices are commenting on what I write and think) forced to somehow cope with what they experience due to what can best be described as an integration disorder which depend on both environmental and genetic factors.

The alien voices I often hear in response to non-verbal environmental sounds such as traffic noise or the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice "retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" and are no doubt just like when I hear and with awareness control my inner voice verbal thoughts heard out loud.
(One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations acknowledge the fact that people are able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices, but...)

Can experiences like these give new insights into our science?

Some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are definitely just like me able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" and what if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message?

Was Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”?

The following quotations on schizophrenia are from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Table 4-7. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia


http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sg/chapter4/blsec4.htm#table4_6

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Delusions
are firmly held erroneous beliefs due to distortions or exaggerations of reasoning and/or misinterpretations of perceptions or experiences. Delusions of being followed or watched are common, as are beliefs that comments, radio or TV programs, etc., are directing special messages directly to him/her.

Hallucinations
are distortions or exaggerations of perception in any of the senses, although auditory hallucinations (“hearing voices” within, distinct from one’s own thoughts) are the most common, followed by visual hallucinations.

Disorganized speech/thinking, also described as “thought disorder” or “loosening of associations,” is a key aspect of schizophrenia. Disorganized thinking is usually assessed primarily based on the person’s speech. Therefore, tangential, loosely associated, or incoherent speech severe enough to substantially impair effective communication is used as an indicator of thought disorder by the DSM-IV.

Grossly disorganized behavior includes difficulty in goal-directed behavior (leading to difficulties in activities in daily living), unpredictable agitation or silliness, social disinhibition, or behaviors that are bizarre to onlookers. Their purposelessness distinguishes them from unusual behavior prompted by delusional beliefs.

Catatonic behaviors are characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness, rigid or bizarre postures, or aimless excess motor activity.

Other symptoms sometimes present in schizophrenia but not often enough to be definitional alone include affect inappropriate to the situation or stimuli, unusual motor behavior (pacing, rocking), depersonalization, derealization, and somatic preoccupations.

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Affective flattening
is the reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact, and body language.

Alogia, or poverty of speech, is the lessening of speech fluency and productivity, thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts, and often manifested as laconic, empty replies to questions.

Avolition
is the reduction, difficulty, or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behavior; it is often mistaken for apparent disinterest.

"SCHIZOPHRENIA" (an integration disorder) - the price we pay for language?

Professor Tim Crow's theory suggests that schizophrenia is the price we pay for language and I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

Quote:"...classical conditioning is far more subtle and relevant to complex human cognitive-emotional behavior than one might first realize..." (p. 4) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

-------SUMMARY-------

The event we call perception:

Some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" and what if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message?


Can the gestures you are about to produce during covert speech like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech be used to determine (subliminally prime) what you expect to hear and can a top-down sensory expectation like this be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce?

People who are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" may hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and I am convinced that Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago was correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception”...

Alien covert speech must somehow operate on the environment in order to generate the event we call speech perception and the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal must be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia.


People who are trying to hear the voice they are about to produce may lose their ability to control covert speech because they are forced to monitor the production of the voice they are about to produce while a corresponding top-down sensory expectation in competition for limited attentional resources selects all features matching the voice they are trying to hear and to lose the ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech may serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message.

Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech (a self-monitoring or corollary discharge mechanism) to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and the gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) can be selected when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech! (Demanding indecisiveness in response to more ambiguous stimuli (a slightly distorted verbal message) may serve the purpose of sensitizing all the gestures you select between in response to bottom-up sensory signals and the context you are exposed to and experience...)

To lose the ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit the gesture you are about to produce and to lose the ability to generate discharges corresponding "to nothing less than the experience of will or intention" is to lose the ability to attenuate ex- and reafference (all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and the sensory consequence you produce)!

People may hear their own thoughts as alien voices because bottom-up sensory signals suppress their ability to generate an act of will and some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal"...

What if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message?

Can a mechanism which affects the outcome of competition between response tendencies generate the event we call perception in all of our senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell)?

From normal behavior to schizophrenia:

To frequently reward a behavior which generates the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can establish or maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore!

Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is time for dinner or an appetizer, may cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal because we learn to expect a meal in response to CS and non-verbal environmental sounds that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) can like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation D. What you learn to expect in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behavior which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect...

What can increase the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these?

What will make it necessary to restore a verbal message (the exposure to noise and some hearing impairments), what will increase the exposure to more ambiguous voices (some urban environments), what may increase the need to access a verbal message (sensory deprivation, traumatic events, solitude or whatever gives you the sense of not belonging in a social context) and what will diminish our ability to generate an act of will with which we are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal (sleep deprivation and stress can impair our ability to inhibit a verbal response and this may generate the event we call perception in response to more ambiguous stimuli).

Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) like these have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness?

"Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content" while those who are diagnosed with schizophrenia more often experience voices expressed with a negative emotional content!

I have tried to understand why some people do rather well while others are diagnosed with a mental illness in the light of the assumption that people who experience voices expressed with a neutral or even positive emotional content are trying to hear the voice they are about to produce while those who experience voices expressed with a negative emotional content are trying to avoid the voice they are about to produce by paying more attention to what they are able to hear more objectively. (To selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content by paying more attention to what you are able to hear more objectively may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms...)

People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! (A verbal illusion can be revealed when an increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals!)

To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition (1a, 1b) and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion (2a, 2b).

1a.) People who reveal a mismatch between the voice they are about to produce and what they are able to hear more objectively are suddenly no longer motivated to attend all features matching the voice they are about to produce and this can improve their ability to inhibit a verbal response while the incentive to produce a verbal response which generates the event we call speech perception due to their ability to reveal a mismatch is lost.

1b.) People who previously in avoidance were able to reveal a verbal illusion may have lost the drive to produce a verbal response along with their ability to reveal a verbal illusion.

2a.) Disorganized speech/thinking in people who predominantly experience voices expressed with a negative emotional content emerge when all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation are attended and in competition for limited attentional resources suppress their ability to inhibit a behavior which generates the event we call perception. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore also generate a more disorganized behavior.

2b.) Some people who previously in avoidance were able to reveal a verbal illusion may hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they have lost the incentive they need to adequately monitor the production of a sensory consequence... (The gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) may eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch. What you are able to select with a top-down sensory expectation like this can be assumed to more easily suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response.)

The ability to consolidate and recall words can be impaired in patients with schizophrenia due to a tendency or previously present ability to reveal a verbal illusion, because they are forced to divide their attention between non-verbal irrelevant features and verbal more relevant information, because they are forced to simultaneously process ambiguous stimuli (demanding indecisiveness) and because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies by suppressing the ability to generate an act of will (distractibility, loose associations and intrusion errors in memory tasks)!

Positive symptoms in all of our other senses (visual hallucinations etc) emerge (or can be assumed to do so) when people frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion and due to "unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies" in what Grossberg refers to as a hypothesis testing cycle (mismatch -> arousal/novelty -> short term memory reset) fail to simultaneously block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS. A failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS may generate the event we call perception in response more ambiguous stimuli and a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore can be maintained or established as the result of stimulus (ambiguous) - stimulus (informative) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to generate the event we call perception. ("The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." and a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS may influence the ability to filter out irrelevant stimuli!)

Catatonic behaviors: Bottom-up sensory signals (what you are able to select in response to previously neutral ambiguous feedback) can affect the threshold for action selection by suppressing the ability to inhibit a response and this may generate aimless excess motor activity. However a movement can not be produced if bottom-up sensory signals continuously are suppressing the ability to inhibit the same response more than they suppress the ability to inhibit a new response. In other words a posture can be generated and maintained when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to inhibit a response.

"Dopamine is released in order to achieve something good or to avoid something evil" and dopamine receptor antagonists are used to treat "schizophrenia"... Conditioned avoidance response (CAR) is a test with predictive validity for antipsychotic efficacy, but negative symptoms are very hard to treat and I wonder if this can be explained with the assumtion that negative symptoms predominantly depend on that you previously in avoidance were able to reveal a verbal illusion.

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

The road to recovery:

The ability to frequently reveal a mismatch will allow you to inhibit a verbal or non-verbal behavior which overtly or covertly generates the event we call perception in response to a previously neutral stimulus and the occurrences of a conditioned response
(CR - when a conditioned reinforcer triggers the need to access a sensory consequence) will eventually decrease or disappear if a conditioned reinforcer (a previously neutral stimulus) due to the ability to reveal a mismatch no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information brought to awareness when the event we call perception is generated in response to a previously neutral stimulus), but only in people who frequently are able to reveal a mismatch while they are trying to attend the sensory consequence they are about to produce! (To change the context you are exposed to and experience may generate a more positive voice hearing experience and this may result in that some people regain the incentive they need to adequately monitor the production of a sensory consequence while it strengthens "a type of motivationally-biased attention" which improves their ability to reveal a verbal illusion... )

------

My attempts to understand some of what I with this illness experience started off several years ago with a metacognitive approach and this is what I now ask myself:

1.) What can we learn from people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices and in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" Question

The alien voices I often hear in response to non-verbal environmental sounds such as traffic noise or the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice are no doubt just like when I hear and with awareness control my inner voice verbal thoughts heard out loud.

One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations acknowledge the fact that people are able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices and I have tried to understand what this model refers to as "a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech" in an attempt to reveal how people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices are able to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal".

A failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech may cause the lack of voluntary control (the lost ability to inhibit the gesture you are about to produce as long as it takes to generate an act of will?) and the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal could be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia!

Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between two similar task?

People who are trying to hear the voice they are about to produce may lose their ability to consciously control covert speech in response to non-verbal environmental sounds like white noise (broad spectrum noise) because they are forced to monitor the production of the voice they are about to produce while they are paying attention to all features matching the voice they are trying to hear! Some frequencies will probably match whatever voice you are trying to hear... (Two in some way similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks and a well known experience many people share can be used in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control!)

The gestures you are about to produce during covert speech can maybe like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech be used to determine (subliminally prime) what you expect to hear and a top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce.

Quote: "Top-down motor expectations are also proposed to exist (Bullock and Grossberg, 1988;Bullock et al., 1998). For example, they can code the desired final, or target, position of a limb, such as an arm, during a reaching movement (see Figure 3). Such expectations can also be readout as priming events that do not, in themselves, cause a movement... ...Top-down sensory expectations help to unitize the contents of bottom-up sensory signals, whereas top-down motor expectations help to unitize the motor gestures that are used to read-out articulatory movements. Under normal conditions, sensory expectations of self-generated sounds are subliminally primed when motor expectations are used to produce speech. With a hyperactive volitional system, these subliminal primes can become suprathreshold..." (My remarks: To frequently restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message is to frequently reward a behavior which generates the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies and to frequently reward a behavior which generates the exposure to stimulus-stimulus contingencies like these will affect the motivational state you are in. Pavlovian and intrumental incentive learning processes function in parallel to motivate instrumental behavior and may generate what Grossberg refers to as a hyperactive volitional system in people who frequently restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message...) Source: How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention and volition (1999) by Stephen Grossberg

http://cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro99.hall.pdf

To understand how you are able to select and then integrate some features that were present in the original signal (generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal") you must first realize the fact that action selection is “the outcome of competition between response tendencies" and that several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously are available when the gesture you are about to produce is selected! (The gestures you select between will each determine its own top-down sensory expectation...)

Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and the gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) can be selected when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech!

Quote: "Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

Incentive motivational signals, the fact that more ambiguous input are more demanding to process (may serve the purpose of sensitizing all the gestures you select between in response to a slightly distorted verbal message) and a similarity between two tasks may all contribute to the more or less lost ability to consciously control covert speech...

To lose the ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech is to lose the ability to inhibit the gesture you are about to produce and what you are able to attend when several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously are available will affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies"! (Each top-down sensory expectation can in parallel be used to attend what more or less suppress the ability to inhibit a specific gesture (the one which generates a corresponding sensory consequence)... )

Bottom-up sensory signals corresponding to a more or less distorted verbal message can be assumed to suppress the ability to inhibit a context dependent gesture with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce and the lost ability to inhibit a verbal response as long as it takes to generate an act of will may serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message!

I am able to use covert speech to remember a voice (!) and what I subjectively remember when I use covert speech in response to a more or less distorted verbal message is what I refer to as the sensory consequence of covert speech. The ability to use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events (an echoic memory) to generate a top-down sensory expectation (or several in response to more ambiguous stimuli) may contribute to a tendency to imitate whatever voice you hear (or expect to hear) if what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech!

Most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence and I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my inner voice with an earlier auditory event. (A verbal illusion can be referred to as a false memory of an earlier auditory event.)

Quote: "It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1892

The ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message may depend on that you are able use a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events to generate a highly context dependent top-down sensory expectation (or several in response to more ambigious stimuli), lack the ability to inhibit the gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation! (We hear what we remember and covert speech can be used to change a short term memory of an earlier auditory event...)

Quote: “...the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception...” (p. 122) Source: Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0016.pdf

To with an act of will synchronize covert speech by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when I listen to a recorded sound played in intervals will generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" (what I experience as "my own voice" can also be generated in response to more continuous tinnitus like or environmental sounds of a very low volume) and to without an act of will be able to synchronize covert speech with the real environmental sounds I hear can be assumed to generate the alien voices I sometimes hear in response to a distorted maybe distant voice!

Quote: "In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with—and specific to—the real sound of running water)... ...Another hallucinated voice occurred simultaneously with actual speech uttered by television announcers. The semantic content was the same as that of the "engine voice," but the "television voice" sounded human, exactly like the real voice of the television announcer who was speaking at the same time... ...In this patient, we observed a direct relationship between the timbre, prosody, and pitch of real environmental sounds and simultaneously perceived auditory hallucinations... ...This case suggests a further hypothesis: normal activation in the auditory system, which corresponds to neural encoding of natural-sound object and location characteristics, may be misinterpreted, leading to the false perception of functional auditory hallucinations that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal..." Source: Letter to the Editor, Characteristics of Functional Auditory Hallucinations by Michael D. Hunter, M.R.C.Psych., and Peter W.R. Woodruff, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.c.Psych. Sheffield, U.K. Am J Psychiatry 161:923, May 2004

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/923

Each and every one of us are in response to a distorted verbal message able to restore an entire syllable and some people are syllable by syllable able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices in response to non-verbal environmental sounds corresponding to the sounds Warren and Warren used in their attempt to "isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources"...

Quote: "...These failures of perception are studied because they isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources... ...Moreover, phonemic restorations were not limited to single speech sounds. The entire syllable “gis” in “legislatures” was heard clearly when it was replaced by an extraneous sound of the same duration... ...PHONEMIC RESTORATION is an illusion that shows the importance of context determining what sound is heard..." Source: Warren, R.M., & Warren, R.P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions. Scientific American, 223, 30-36.

http://step.psy.cmu.edu/articles/WarrenWarren70.pdf

To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to more frequently reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (more ambiguous non-verbal environmental sounds) – stimulus (the sensory consequence of what I refer to as alien covert speech) contingencies can be assumed to establish a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore! (What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect! The ability to reveal a verbal illusion while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce may prevent this from happening by blocking the voice you are about to produce...)

I assume that people more often expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds like the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to environmental sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and early on in the prodromal fase of this illness often experence the insidious voices I am able to hear subjectively in response to a distorted maybe distant voice. (I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce verbal illusions like these in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs... Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of verbal auditory hallucinations!)

Quote: "A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..." Source: Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356 by Ralph E. Hoffman and his colleagues

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/355

Quote: “Recently, it has been proposed that exaggerated top-down processing may generate spontaneous perceptual output, and that this may constitute a cognitive predisposition toward hallucinations... ...We conclude that aberrant top-down processing, particularly in the form of strong semantic expectations, may contribute to the experience of auditory-verbal hallucinations.” (My remarks: To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message may generate a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response to what people normally ignore...) Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin (2010) 36 (1): 151-156. Semantic Expectations Can Induce False Perceptions in Hallucination-Prone Individuals by Ans Vercammen and André Aleman

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/1/151.full

2.) What if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message Question

Quote: "These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception." Source: The Journal of Neuroscience, August 5, 2009, Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Möttönen, Riikka and Watkins, Kate E

http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/29/31/9819

3.) Can the gestures you are about to produce during covert speech like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear and can a top-down sensory expectation like this be used to select
(attend) all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when you are motivated to access a verbal message Question

4.) Are you able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation
Question

5.) How are people able to hear their own thoughts out loud in response to un-patterned noise of a very low volume
(what normally is unattended and below awareness) Question

6.) Is Treisman´s attenuation model correct in its claim that "paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness" Question

7.) Can a previous exposure to a tone enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible
(Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) because you expect to hear the tone you were exposed to and are able to use what you expect to hear to select (pay attention to) all features matching the tone you were exposed to Question

To try to further confirm the assumption that memories guided my attention towards external sounds I first recorded a couple of notes coming from a violin in a certain sequence and after that I played them all together with white noise to see if I could single them out with the help of a short term memory. This actually worked and I heard the "melody" from the beginning of the tape over and over again.

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/

8.) Can excessive attentional focus on all features matching a top-down sensory expectation substantially increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select
(peripheral features not otherwise brought to awareness) when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce and will the subjective loudness of what you are able to select determine the subjective loudness of the voice you are about to produce Question

I would like to ad that many of the voices I hear in response to environmental or tinnitus like sounds of a very low volume are heard without reaching the loudness with which a voice can be heard more objectively.

9.) Is it harder to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise below a certain threshold and will this sometimes result in a tendency to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume Question


To be able to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise above a certain threshold, but totally lack the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise of a much lower volume may result in a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold and to expect to hear a verbal message in response to un-patterned noise bellow a certain threshold can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behavior which normally satisfies the need to restore a verbal message!

Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources while they increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce!

The ability to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume may depend on that you lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation!

Ford and colleagues suggest that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events and because of this overinterpret the kind of internal noise (spontaneous sensory activity) people normally ignore.

Quote: “Recent advances in the neurosciences provide clues to why patients report an auditory experience in the absence of any perceptual input. Spontaneous activity in the early sensory cortices may in fact form the basis for the original signal. Early neuronal computation systems are known to interpret this activity and engage in decision-making processes to determine whether a percept has been detected. A brain system that is abnormally tuned in to internal acoustic experiences may therefore report an auditory perception in the absence of any external sound. Ford and colleagues recently suggested that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events—the brains of persons who have auditory hallucinations may therefore be overinterpreting spontaneous sensory activity that is largely ignored in healthy brains…” (My remarks: The voices you hear in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation will in response to certain sounds include acoustic features which characterize what you are able to hear more objectively and to sometimes be able to reveal a verbal illusion by locating the source of some environmental sounds can like when you are able to silence a voice by blocking what you are able to hear more objectively make it very easy to understand that you are able to interpret external stimuli. However to block what I hear with my fingers can only give a temporary relief from the voices I hear and I am also like expected able to hear my own thoughts in integration with the tinnitus sounds I hear (become more aware of) during silence.) Source: Auditory Hallucinations in Psychiatric Illness from the march 2010 issue of Psychiatric Times by Flavie Waters

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cme/display/article/10168/1534546

10.) Why do people lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control covert speech Question

11.) Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between what normally generates their ability to control covert speech and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation Question

12.) Do people more easily lose the ability to control covert speech and hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are forced to divide their attention between two similar tasks Question

13.) Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share
(two similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks) in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control Question

14.) Can two in some way similar tasks compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set
(limited) as if you were to perform only one task and can this be assumed to depend on the way in which "recurrent competitive networks" tend to normalize their total activity Question

15.) Can two in some way similar tasks interfere with each other more than two different tasks because the neurons involved in executing one task tend to resonate with the group of neurons that are involved in executing another in some way similar task Question


The ability of neurons to respond selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies can be compared to how tuning forks resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies. Some of the energy with which you make one object like a tuning fork resonate can be transferred to another object which has the capacity to resonate with the same frequency (resonate selectively to inputs at preferred frequencies) and I wonder if some of the attention you devote to one task (like monitoring the production of the voice you are about to produce) thanks to a mechanism like this passively can be transferred to another task (like paying attention to all features matching the voice you are about to produce)...

16.) Can incentive motivational signals
("a type of motivationally-biased attention") shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation Question

17. ) Is one of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations correct in its claim that “a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice” Question

A self-monitoring mechanism or “corollary discharge” mechanism is needed to generate an act of will and what "should correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention" can be assumed to attenuate and "tag" a self-produced experience by accurately predicting the sensory consequence you are about to produce.

Quote: “Before someone talks, a neural signal travels from speech production areas to auditory cortex. It carries a prediction of the speech sounds based on a copy of the motor command and triggers a “corollary discharge.” If the corollary discharge matches what the speaker hears, as it should when the sound is self-produced, the sensory experience is reduced. The sensory experience thus carries a tag declaring it “self-produced,”... ” Source: Schizophreniaforum.org

http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1343

Irwin Feinberg was the first scientist to propose that these discharges "are themselves conscious" and "correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention"!

Quote: "...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated... ...Whereas internal feedback associated with simpler motor act is below the level of consciousness, one might postulate that the corollary discharges accompanying conscious thought are themselves conscious. If so, the subjective experience of these discharges should correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention..." Source: Schizophrenia bulletin (VOL. 4, NO. 4, 1978) Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders, Irwin Feinberg

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/4/4/636.pdf

For whatever it's worth, my own attempt to understand: To consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal by adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech may in competition for limited attentional resources attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce. ("...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated...") The effect when you are forced to divide your attention between two similar tasks can, sustained for a short period of time, be assumed to attenuate the sensory consequence you produce while an act of will tags a self produced experience with the help of a corresponding prediction! (All features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce (exafference) and the sensory consequence you produce (reafference) are attenuated!) Incentive motivational signals can be assumed to shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation...

I am currently reading the following article which deals with how somatosensory signals affect our ability to attenuate a self produced experience in an attempt to understand this better:

Quote: "When one finger made a tapping movement above a finger of the other hand, sensation in the passive finger was attenuated only when contact was expected between the fingers. The level of attenuation observed when contact was expected was the same whether or not the contact actually occurred… …The absence of attenuation in participants in group B, who experienced taps in the passive finger, but never experienced a contact event in the active finger, is an important result for several reasons. First, it serves as a control for effects of divided attention. Participants in group A had to attend to two different tasks at the same time: generating a tap with the active finger and judging a sensation in the passive finger. This division of attention may be less pronounced in delay trials, where the two tasks were separated by 500 ms, than in contact and no-contact trials, where the two tasks were simultaneous. This difference in attentional demand could conceivably be responsible for the difference in magnitude judgment between these trial types. However, group B was essentially identical to group A with respect to attention: participants had to generate tapping movements with amplitudes and velocities matched to those made by participants in group A, and the judgment task in the passive finger was identical in both groups. If divided attention were responsible for the differences in magnitude judgment between trials with and without a delay in group A, the same differences would be seen between no-contact and delay trials in group B. Because no such differences were observed, we can conclude that the reduction in perceived magnitude seen in group A was due to a specific attenuation mechanism and not the attentional demands of the task...” Source: Bays PM, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2006) Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.

http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/BayFlaWol_PLoSB_06.pdf

Attenuation of the sensory consequence did require previous contact events in the active finger, but I fail to understand how they are able to “conclude that the reduction in perceived magnitude seen in group A was due to a specific attenuation mechanism and not the attentional demands of the task”. I mean the ability to attenuate a self produced experence with the help of a prediction may very well rely on previous contact events in the active finger AND the attention you devote to a competing task (what generates the ability to adequately monitor the production of a self produced experience)...

I am currently also reading Somatosensory function in speech perception by Takayuki Ito, Mark Tiede and David J. Ostry in an attempt to understand how somatosensory signals are involved in our ability to generate the event we call perception.

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/4/1245.full.pdf+html

The ability to predict a self produced experience may depend on previous feedback from the body part which generates a sensory consequence and a top-down sensory expectation like this can be used to attenuate and “tag” a self produced experience or to attend all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce...

The following source suggests that expectation of tactile consequences from visual impressions is inborn:

Quote: ” One of the significant finding in Kuhl's work on infant perception of speech was the ability of very young infants to perceive a categorical relation between speech sounds and facial expressions associated with particular speech sounds. Other experiments have demonstrated analogous effects... ...The infant expects to be able to touch an object it sees... ...The corollary discharge is a very important concept for the cross-modal interaction of motor control and vision. If the structures governing language became integrated neurally with this complex system linking motor control and vision, then it would not be surprising if language acquired the capacity to form into articulatory patterns information about both visual perception and sequences of action.” Source: The motor theory of language by Robin Allot

http://www.percepp.com/motor-ii.htm

18.) Can the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia Question

19.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources more or less suppress the ability to control covert speech and do people who more or less lose the ability to control covert speech more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response Question

20.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce be more demanding when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce
(what you expect to hear) and bottom-up sensory signals Question

21.) Are you more motivated to produce a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals
(1) and will the motivational state you are in when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce and bottom-up sensory signals increase the attention you devote to all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce Question

1.) Attention has the effect of increasing the gain of the signals that you hear!

22.) Is it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals and will this result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce Question

23.) Are several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously available when the gesture you need to use is selected and are you able to select the articulatory gesture you need to use
(the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech Question

24.) Is the working memory of people who simultaneously use several top-down sensory expectations to attend more ambigious stimuli overloaded and will this contribute when the perception of a context dependent voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" is generated by further diminishing the ability to inhibit a verbal response Question

The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose when you need to restore and better distinguish a slightly distorted verbal message! What you are able to select with a single top-down sensory expectation may fail to suppress the ability to inhibit the gesture you need to use in response to more ambiguous environmental sounds (what you are able to select when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce will be less demanding when you get a larger mismatch between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals) and I am trying to understand how you are able to sufficiently sensitize a verbal response...

25.) Is action selection “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals” Question

26.) Can not bottom-up sensory signals affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies” if it is harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals Question

27.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect "the outcome of competition between response tendencies" and will this generate the informative event we call perception in response to a more or less distorted verbal message Question

28.) Can the lost ability to inhibit a verbal response serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message and will the lost ability to choose how you respond result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience Question

29.) Are you able to use multiple sources of information, like when incongruent auditory and visual cues are used to generate the McGurk effect
(a verbal illusion), because a competing task (what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce) suppress the ability to choose how you respond Question

Quote: ”The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. It suggests that speech perception is multimodal, that is, that it involves information from more than one sensory modality…” Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGurk_effect

30.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish a verbal message and thanks to a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience, be used to restore a more or less distorted verbal message Question

31.) Are stimuli to which you make the same response categorized when you hear the sensory consequence of a specific gesture in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation
(what you are able to hear more subjectively will in response to different stimuli sound alike) and can a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish in response to acoustically highly variable speech sounds Question

32.) Are people able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation Question

33.) Was Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception” Question


The wall of silence

When nobody I am
together we must stand
(the few of us who can)
and see and feel and hear
the questionmarks are there

why do they nothing tell
when precious knowledge dwell
and soon in black and white
the answers will be right

I did it all back then
now did it once again
prevail prevail prevail
how can it ever fail

persistence is its core
will make it now for sure
persistence is a pain
will lable me insane

Quote: "...mental states include not only affects and emotions, but also goals and intentions. A person who was unaware of their goals could, on the one hand, be a slave to every environmental influence or, on the other hand, be prone to perseverative or stereotyped behaviour, because they would not have the insight to recognize that certain goals were unobtainable or inappropriate..." Source: Theory of mind in Schizophrenia. (1994) by CD Frith quoted by Stephen Grossberg in The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia

It should be possible to understand the persistence with which I am trying to understand this illness, but I definitely need to apologize for editing this post over and over and over... ...again!

Last edited by stefan on Thu Oct 31, 2013 12:10 am; edited 5434 times in total
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stefan
Linguist


Joined: 08 Jul 2007
Posts: 23
Location: Sweden
PostPosted: Sat Jan 12, 2008 7:03 am
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34.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and will this generate the event we call perception in all of our senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell) Question

35.) Can the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness Question

To reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these can be assumed to establish or maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore...

36.) Why am I the only one who writes about how the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can establish or maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore Question

37.) Can not the exposure to stimulus
(non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message establish or maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore Question

Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus contingencies and what generates our ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message due to a hearing loss may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds (1) and the need to access what you learn to expect can motivate a behaviour which satisfies the need to access a verbal message (2). Hearing impairments are, as expected, important risk factors for schizophrenia... (However to be born profoundly deaf may reduce the risk if people who without an act of will covertly are signing in response to bottom-up visual signals more seldom need to restore the message they are receiving... Deaf people have the same incidence of schizophrenic illness as the general population!)

1.) Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is time for dinner or an appetizer, may cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal because we learn to expect a meal in response to CS (CS will eventually predict the arrival of food) and non-verbal environmental sounds that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) can like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation D.

2.) Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which an individual's behaviour is modified by its consequences and it involves learning to make a response in order to obtain a reward or avoid something unpleasant. What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect or makes it possible to avoid what you learn to expect.

Quote: "…Some stimuli, such as food and water, are reinforcers due to phylogeny (i.e., the evolutionary history of the species). These stimuli are called primary reinforcers. Other stimuli can become reinforcers due to events that occur in the history of an individual. Typically, these reinforcers have been paired with existing reinforcers. For example, if a tone regularly precedes food, the tone will become a reinforcer – that is, it can be used to operantly condition an arbitrary response such as a lever press. A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that has become a reinforcer by being paired with a reinforcer. Conditioned reinforcement expands the range of stimuli that can become reinforcers. The evolutionary significance of conditioned reinforcement is that responding to produce a stimulus that has occurred in close temporal association with a primary reinforcer is likely to bring the animal closer to the primary reinforcer..." (p. 36) "...Before concluding this discussion of the distinction between respondent and operant conditioning, it is important to note that pure instances of either are rare. Most learned behaviour consists of both. This is analogous to the rarity of elemental hydrogen and oxygen, but the abundance of H2O..." (p.40) "...Respondent conditioning is the result of stimulus-stimulus contingencies, while operant conditioning is the result of response-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. There are, however certain stimulus-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. Theoretically speaking, stimulus-stimulus effects on operant conditioning may be regarded as resulting from respondent conditioning interacting with operant conditioning..." (p. 103) Source: The science of learning by Joseph Pear

Abstract: ”Acquired behavior is motivated by two forms of incentive learning. Pavlovian incentive learning reflect the acquisition of motivational properties by conditioned stimuli (CSs) through their association with appetitive and aversive reinforcers. Although the influence of appetitive CSs is modulated by primary motivational states, they exert a general motivation influence on appetitive behavior. By contrast, aversive CSs inhibit appetitive behavior. The second process, instrumental incentive learning, determines the incentive value assigned to outcomes of goal-directed, instrumental action. This incentive value, and its control by primary motivational states, has to be learned throught experience of the hedonic reactions elicited by the outcome. The two incentive learning processes function in parallel to motivate instrumental behavior.” Source: Chapter 12 in Steven`s handbook of experimental psychology: Learning, motivation and emotion. The Role of Learning in the Operation of Motivational Systems by Anthony Dickinson and Bernard Balleine

http://balleinelab.com/publications/db2002-2.pdf

Quote: It was originally thought that the process underlying classical conditioning was one where the conditioned stimulus becomes associated with, and eventually elicits, the unconditioned response. But many observations do not support this hypothesis. For example, the conditioned response is often quite different to the unconditioned response. Learning theorists now more commonly suggest that the CS comes to signal or predict the US. In the case of the salivating dogs in Pavlov's experiment, the bell tone signaled and predicted the arrival of the dog food, thus resulting in the dog salivating." Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

38.) What can increase the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies that affect an operant behaviour like covert speech Question

A.) What will make it necessary to restore a verbal message.

- The need to access what you expect to hear can motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which serves the purpose of satisfying the need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message while bottom-up sensory signals suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response.

B.) What will increase the exposure to more ambiguous voices.

- It´s probably more common to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds which originates from or coexist in parallel with a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message and to expect to access a verbal message can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to interpret un-patterned noise...

C.) What may increase the need to access a verbal message.

- The need to access a verbal message can motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which normally satisfies the need to restore a verbal message in response to more ambigious stimuli. What Grossberg refers to as volitional signals may contribute to our ability to generate the event we call perception because they inhibit inhibitory interneurons in the on-centre of a top-down expectation...

- Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and to lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

- The ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message may depend on that you lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation!

D.) What will diminish our ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence.

- Can the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and will all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources as a consequence more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

(I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.)

39.) Can all the factors that contribute to the development of an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia be assumed to increase the exposure to the kind of stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies you are exposed to when you are able to restore a verbal message Question

40.) Can the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices be assumed to trigger an integration disorder like this Question

41.) How do you explain “the fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity” Question

Quote: “…The fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity in a dose–response fashion suggests not only statistical association, but also causality. Thus, the Swedish findings, in combination with earlier publications, allow us to put forward an increasingly plausible case that the environment has a powerful influence on variation in the incidence of schizophrenia in populations. The identification of the nature of this environmental exposure is likely to further significantly our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms that facilitate symptom formation in psychosis...” Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry (2004) 184: 287-288 Does the urban environment cause psychosis? by Jim Van Os

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/184/4/287#REF7

A, B, C and D?

42.) Why are hearing impairments important risk factors for schizophrenia Question

Quote: "...hearing impairments are important risk factors for schizophrenia (Malmberg et al., 1995)..." Source: The Causes of Schizophrenic Voice Hallucinations: A Critical Review (2010) by Álvaro Machado Dias

http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-dias.pdf

Quote: ”… However, schizophrenia was 1.81 (95% CI 1.2–2.7) times higher amongst those with severe hearing loss, which may be preventable…” Source: Are there neurological and sensory risk factors for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research Volume 14, issue 3, Pages 247-251, February 1995

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7766536

A, B and C?

- The exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message may contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore and a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore may have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness!

Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds while operant conditioning is the result of response - stimulus contingencies and what generates our ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message due to a hearing loss may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds (1) and the need to access what you learn to expect can motivate a behaviour which satisfies the need to access a verbal message (2). Hearing impairments are, as expected, important risk factors for schizophrenia... (However to be born profoundly deaf may reduce the risk if people who without an act of will covertly are signing in response to bottom-up visual signals more seldom need to restore the message they are receiving... Deaf people have the same incidence of schizophrenic illness as the general population!)

1.) Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is time for dinner or an appetizer, may cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal because we learn to expect a meal in response to CS (CS will eventually predict the arrival of food) and non-verbal environmental sounds that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) can like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation D.

2.) Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which an individual's behaviour is modified by its consequences and it involves learning to make a response in order to obtain a reward or avoid something unpleasant. What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect or makes it possible to avoid what you learn to expect.

To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to more frequently reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (more ambiguous non-verbal environmental sounds) – stimulus (the sensory consequence of what I refer to as alien covert speech can be heard in integration with what you were able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies can be assumed to establish a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore! (What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect! The ability to reveal a verbal illusion while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce may prevent this from happening by blocking the voice you are about to produce... )

Quote: “Recently, it has been proposed that exaggerated top-down processing may generate spontaneous perceptual output, and that this may constitute a cognitive predisposition toward hallucinations. In this experiment, we investigated whether hallucination proneness would be associated with increased auditory-verbal perceptual expectations, and at which processing level this occurs... ...We conclude that aberrant top-down processing, particularly in the form of strong semantic expectations, may contribute to the experience of auditory-verbal hallucinations.” (My remarks: To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message may generate a tendency to expect to hear a verbal message in response to what people normally ignore... ) Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin (2010) 36 (1): 151-156. Semantic Expectations Can Induce False Perceptions in Hallucination-Prone Individuals by Ans Vercammen and André Aleman

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/1/151.full

I assume that people more often expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds like the pitch and timbre of a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to environmental sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and early on in the prodromal fase of this illness often experence the insidious voices I am able to hear subjectively in response to a distorted maybe distant voice. (I succeeded to simulate the circumstances needed to induce verbal illusions like these in one of my attempts to understand this better. This was done with the help of a soundfile with a lot of white noise used to mask distant voices talking in the background. An objective perception was hereby prevented, but I could still hear them talk and in real life you only need to hear a couple of words to start and fuel false beliefs... Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of verbal auditory hallucinations!)

Quote: "...A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..." Source: Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356 by Ralph E. Hoffman and his colleagues

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/355

43.) Can sensory deprivation and solitude increase the need to access a verbal message like starvation increases the need to access food and will this increase the risk of developing a mental illness Question

44.) Can poor facial recognition
(impaired facial emotion recognition) like sensory deprivation and solitude affect the need to access a verbal message and will this increase the vulnerability to schizophrenia in some people Question

I have tried to understand how poor facial emotion recognition can be generated in people who frequently are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a verbal illusion and need to consider the possibility that poor facial emotion recognition in some people correspond to a primary negative symptom!

45.) Why are men more vulnerable than women Question

Quote: Scientists have long suspected testosterone plays an important role in schizophrenia, which affects more men than women. Men are also more likely to develop psychosis in adolescence, previous research has shown... ..."The relationship between sex steroids, such as testosterone, and psychiatric disorders has long intrigued researchers. For example, we have known for many years that schizophrenia presents earlier in males than females, but the biological mechanism for this has been poorly understood," said Dr Mitchell, who was not involved in the study." Source: "Scientists unpack testosterone's role in schizophrenia." April 26th, 2013.

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-scientists-testosterone-role-schizophrenia.html

Quote: "A new study from Utrecht and Cambridge Universities has for the first time found that an administration of testosterone under the tongue in volunteers negatively affects a person’s ability to ‘mind read’, an indication of empathy."

http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/extra-testosterone-reduces-your-empathy

The poor ability to "mind read" can like sensory deprivation be assumed to increase the need to access a verbal message...

46.) How do you explain the fact that belonging to an ethnic minority increases the risk of developing an integration disorder like this Question

Quote: “It seems to be more common in migrants (McGrath, 2006) despite cultural considerations, with some of the most dramatic increases seen in African and Caribbean people living in the United Kingdom, whose rates are up to 6 times those of the native white population (Fearon et al, 2006). The rates remain elevated in the children of migrants, but are not reflected in increased rates in their home country (Mahy et al, 1999). Environmental and social factors have been particularly implicated in this increased risk including racism and loss of social and family support. It is important to note that the risk of schizophrenia in migrants is greatest when they represent a smaller proportion of their local community (Boydell et al 2001).” Source: Scolarpedia, Epidemiology: risk factors for schizophrenia

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Schizophrenia

C?

47.) Can any difference which gives you the sense of not belonging in a social context cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this Question

The emotional and motivational state you are in may very well affect the need to access a verbal message and this ought to result in that you devote more attention to all features matching what you expect to hear. To devote more attention to a competing task like this can be assumed to suppress the ability to inhibit a behavior which satisfies the need to access a verbal message in response to more ambigious stimuli.

Stimulus - stimulus contingencies that profoundly affect an operant behavior like covert speech can like this be generated and I wonder if the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message can have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness.

48.) Can the exposure to social stressors have a particularly harmful impact on individuals with a genetic vulnerability Question

Indifference is a quality which ought to decrease your vulnerability and being a more sensitive and insecure person is a quality which may increase your vulnerability.

Can not the exposure to social stressors like stress in general, in accordance with an experience shared by many (stress will sometimes generate a more impulsive behaviour), more or less affect the ability control whatever it is you are doing?

Can not the exposure to social stressors increase the need to access information and can not incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") like these further diminish the ability to control covert speech by shifting the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Conclusion: A sensitivity to social stressors will probably affect the need to access information while it diminishes the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

49.) Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, sometimes unable to adequately monitor the production of a sensory consequence and will this increase the risk of developing an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia Question

Can the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and will all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources as a consequence more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are unable to attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence they are about to produce and lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response?

Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to interpret un-patterned noise corresponding to environmental or tinnitus like sounds maintain a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore and will this increase the risk of developing an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia?

Hypnagogic hallucinations are episodes of hearing voices as one is falling asleep and may depend on that people are unable to devote enough attention to a competing task corresponding to what generates their ability to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal.

50.) Can a pre-existing cognitive impairment cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this Question

I assume that a cognitive impairment due to the ambiguity you experience like sleep deprivation and the exposure to social stressors can affect the ability control whatever it is you are doing while you are trying to make sense of the context you are exposed to. (What generates the ability to control covert speech must like when you are trying to restore a distorted maybe distant voice be more demanding due to the ambiguity you experience... )

To not be able to make sense of the context you are exposed to will no doubt increase the need to access information and incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") like these may even further diminish the ability to control covert speech by shifting the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation. To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech while you are trying to access a verbal message is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Conclusion: A pre-exstisting cognitive impairment may increase the need to access information while it diminishes the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Quote: “Trevor Robbins of the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, argued that the field ought to pay careful attention to phenotypes, and their component parts (“intermediate phenotypes” or, if inherited, “endophenotypes”)... ...He suggested that schizophrenia’s clinical features may be deconstructed into discrete cognitive impairments, and that aberrant learning in general may underlie the positive and negative symptoms defined by psychiatry.” Source: Schizophrenia research forum, WCPG 2012—Phenotype and Function in Schizophrenia Genomics

http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1820

The complicated world we live in may trigger the need to access information (larger chunks of information are required in order to understand the context we are exposed to) and the need to access information due to a cognitive impairment or when we are exposed to a much to complicated context may create a vicious spiral in which a person with an overloaded working memory experience the need to take in more information... (The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose in response to a slightly distorted verbal message!)

Quote: ” Working memory is the system that actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind, where they can be manipulated. This involves execution of verbal and nonverbal tasks—such as reasoning and comprehension—and makes them available for further information-processing. It is not the same as short term memory. Working memory tasks require monitoring (i.e., manipulation of information or behaviors) as part of completing goal-directed actions in the setting of interfering processes and distractions. The cognitive processes needed to achieve this include the executive and attention control of short-term memory, which permit interim integration, processing, disposal, and retrieval of information.” Soruce: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_memory

51.) Is it possible to understand why some people who maybe only once in their lives used the kind of drugs that triggers auditory hallucinations continues to hear these voices for the rest of their lives Question

The repeated use of hallucinogenic drugs has been reported to cause a chronic hallucinatory state in some people and what people learn when they with a short delay interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message may cause a chronic hallucinatory state!...

To expect to access a verbal message in response to a slightly distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to motivate a highly context dependent behaviour which makes it possible to restore and better distinguish a verbal message and to more frequently reward a behaviour which generates the exposure to stimulus (more ambiguous non-verbal environmental sounds) – stimulus (the sensory consequence of covert speech can be heard in integration with what you were able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation) contingencies can be assumed to establish a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore when you learn to expect to access a verbal message in response to what people normally ignore!

People who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear may eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) while some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid learn to sometimes avoid the kind of voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively (2) ...

1.) Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

2.) People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore also generate a more disorganized behavior.

"Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content" and to selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms.

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

52.) What can prevent the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies from having such a profound effect on an operant behaviour like cover speech that some people develope a mental illness Question

A.)
The ability to reveal a verbal illusion while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce may prevent the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal)-stimulus (verbal) contingencies from having such a profound effect that some people develope a mental illness by blocking the voice you are about to produce! (Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!)

B.) Can the predictability or informativeness of CS (non-verbal environmental sounds) be reduced if the context you are exposed to and experience with more certainty predicts the event we call perception?

53.) Are you able to reveal a verbal illusion because an increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals Question

The sound you interpret (CS) can like a verbal context activate the need to access information (D) and incentive motivational signals like these highlights all features matching the sound you interpret while all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce are in focus...

54.) How can the ability to reveal a mismatch between the voice you are about to produce and what you are able to hear more objectively affect the ability to inhibit a verbal response Question


To reveal a mismatch between the voice you are about to produce and what you are able to hear more objectively will affect the motivation to produce the voice you are about to produce, the incentive to attend all features matching the voice you are about to produce and your ability to inhibit the voice you are about to produce. (The context you are exposed to and experience may have the opposite effect!)

All features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce are attended, but only until you are able to reveal a mismatch and this may prevent that a competing task suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response!

55.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation be blocked in the middle of a sentence because an increase in attention takes the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals Question


To focus on what you hear objectively (like when you are able to locate the source of a specific sound) will sometimes make it possible to reveal the subjectivity of the voices you hear. The first person to write about an experience like this is as far as I know sir John Perceval (1803-1876), but he believed that God and not his brain made him hear voices in nonverbal sounds. Like me he could hear the nonverbal sound behind the voice without simultaneously hearing a verbal illusion if he located the source which probably means increasing the level of attention devoted to listening until you are able to take the sound you interpret out of its peripheral existence and reveal a mismatch.

56.) Is the ability to remember affectively toned verbal material sometimes impaired because an emotional response increase the attention you devote to what you are able to hear more objectively Question

Quote: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

57.) Can an emotional response first increase the attention you devote to what you are able to hear more objectively and then when you are able to reveal a verbal illusion like the voice you were about to produce be blocked without ever reaching awareness Question

58.) Can the sensory consequence you are about to produce during covert speech take on the value of what you are able to reveal as irrelevant and how can this be assumed to affect the emotional state of people who frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion instead of hearing their own thoughts as alien voices Question

59.) Can a reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression be generated due to a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion Question

60.) Can a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion be generated because you are trying really hard to hear the voice you are about to produce or because you are trying to avoid the voice you are about to produce by paying more attention to what you are able to hear more objectively Question


It is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear and I am able to use this to get rid of some of the voices I hear! (Incentive motivational signals highlights what you are able to hear more objectively until you are able to reveal a mismatch between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals.)

61.) Are people able to selectively avoid some of the voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively and can this be assumed to generate more negative symptoms in people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid Question


What I am trying to understand are how secondary negative symptoms emerge in people who frequently reveal a verbal illusion!

Quote: “The objective appearance of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders may be a direct reflection of a primary neural abnormality or may be secondary to a variety of factors such as neuroleptic side effects, depression, positive symptoms, or environmental understimulation.” Source: In PubMed from Compr Psychiattry. 1995 Nov-Dec;36(6):421-7. The reliability of distinguishing primary versus secondary negative symptoms by Flaum M and Andreasen N.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8565446

People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal mismatch may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition... (Un-patterned noise may come to act as a conditioned negative reinforcer when people mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid!)

Conditioned avoidance response (CAR) is a test with predictive validity for antipsychotic efficacy, but negative symptoms are very hard to treat and I wonder if this can be explained with the assumtion that negative symptoms predominantly depend on that you previously in avoidance WERE able to reveal a verbal illusion. In other words I wonder if the gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch... (I assume, but have not yet been able to verify (!) that the ability to attenuate a response which allows rats to avoid something unpleasent can predict if a medicine have an effect or not because it corresponds to how well the medicine attenuates a condition avoidance response in humans... )

Quote:””It was believed that dopamine regulated pleasure and reward and that we release it when we obtain something that satisfies us, but in fact the latest scientific evidence shows that this neurotransmitter acts before that, it actually encourages us to act. In other words, dopamine is released in order to achieve something good or to avoid something evil,” explains Mercè Correa.” (My remarks: To reward an operant behavior (covert speech) which generates exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message may contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore (intrumental and pavlovian motivational signals encourages us to act)... Dopamine receptor antagonists are used to treat "schizophrenia"... ) Source: ScienceDaily , Dopamine Regulates the Motivation to Act, Study Shows

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130110094415.htm

Quote: ” Conventional antipsychotics treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but they have little effect on primary negative and cognitive symptoms.” Source: Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Mar;13 Suppl 3:S21-6. The role of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia outcome by Tamminga CA, Buchanan RW and Gold JM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9690966

Quote:” Since the introduction of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic drug, it has been evident that a large number of patients have schizophrenia that is treatment resistant. It is estimated that between 20% and 60% of patients have schizophrenia that is resistant to treatment... ... patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do tend to have prominent negative and cognitive symptoms and more severe psychopathology than patients whose condition responds to antipsychotic drugs.” (My remarks: What generates treatment resistent negative symptoms may generate treatment resistent positive symptoms if it like expected affects the power with which you are able to monitor the production of the voice you are about to produce! ) Source: Psychiatric Times, Treatment-Resistent Schizophrenia, Strategies for Recognizing Schizophrenia and Treating to Remission by Seong S. Shim MD, PhD

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1433177

Do I need to redefine what I refer to as negative symptoms?

Catatonic behaviours are referred to as positive symptoms, but seem to be consisting of both positive and negative symptoms.

Quote: "Catatonic behaviors are characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness, rigid or bizarre postures, or aimless excess motor activity."

Conclusion: To selectively be able to avoid some of the voices you hear by revealing a verbal illusion may generate negative symptoms while the voices you are trying to avoid, but fail to reveal, generate positive symptoms. This can be prevented in some people, but negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition may also depend on that you previously in avoidance WERE able to reveal a mismatch and this can not yet be effectively treated...

Is the ability to reveal a verbal illusion prevented in people who are treated with a dopamine receptor antagonist and can this have a negative impact on their ability to recover? (Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information) because you are able to reveal a mismatch while you are trying to hear the voices you want to hear!)

62.) Will the ability to reveal a verbal illusion in time eventually generate more negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition in people who mostly hear kind of voices they want to avoid Question


The gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) may eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch. (People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear what you are able to avoid by revealing a mismatch may eventually generate more negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition!)

Quote: ”Conclusions: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a specific reinforcement learning abnormality: patients with high-negative symptoms do not represent the expected value of rewards when making decisions but learn to avoid punishments through the use of prediction errors... ...These results provide insight into the origins of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia. First, patients with the most severe negative symptoms demonstrate deficits in learning from rewarding outcomes. This deficit is not a manifestation of a general learning impairment because the HNS group performed at levels similar to those of the HC group when learning to avoid losses. Second, in the transfer test phase, the HNS group did not show a preference for a frequently rewarded stimulus over a frequent loss avoider; that is, they were less able to take expected reward values into account during decision making; therefore, decisions were based on stimulus response weights learned from prior PEs.” Source: Negative Symptoms and the Failure to Represent the Expected Reward Value of Actions, Behavioral and Computational Modeling Evidence, James M. Gold, PhD; James A. Waltz, PhD; Tatyana M. Matveenva, BA; Zuzana Kasanova, BA; Grgory P. Strauss, Phd; Ellen S. Herbener, PhD; Anne G. E. Collins, PhD; Michael J. Frank, PhD

http://ski.clps.brown.edu/papers/GoldEtAl_Archives12.pdf

63.) Can negative symptoms due to a reduced capacity for anticipating future pleasure resulting from goal-directed action in time emerge because bottom-up sensory signals consistently suppress the ability to generate an act of will Question

Quote: “The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include deficits in motivation, for which thear is currently no treatment available... ...The motivational deficit in patients with schizophrenia is not due to an inability to experience pleasure in the moment as hedonic reaction appears intact in patients. Instead, the motivation deficit represents a reduced capacity for anticipating future pleasure resulting from goal-directed action. The diminished anticipation appears to be a consequence of an inability to accurately represent the expected reward values of actions.”(My remarks: The sensory consequence you are about to produce may no longer predict a reward because bottom-up sensory signals corresponding to non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds previously consistently suppressed the ability to control covert speech - How informative is a loose association?) Source: Schizophr Bull (2012) 38 (6): 1111-1117, Schizophrenia in Translation: Dissecting Motivation in Schizophrenia and Rodents by Eleanor H. Simpson, James A. Waltz, Christoph Kellendonk and Peter D. Balsam

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/6/1111.abstract?sid=763ea097-f288-41d6-ba40-5c1442512a0d

64.) Am I the only one who writes about how the ability to reveal a mismatch can generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition in people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid Question

65.) Can not negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition be connected to our ability to reveal a mismatch Question

66.) Will a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion eventually in correlation more or less attenuate the response to a deviant within a sequence of otherwise regular stimuli Question


Reduction of mismatch negativity has been correlated with the severity of negative symptoms...

Quote: “When identical tones are presented sequentially, the amplitude of later tones is reduced compared with that of earlier tones in the sequence, suggesting an adaptation or habituation effect of the N1 component, which may correspond to cortical filtering of incoming event. In the present study, we used this approach to assess N1m adaptation to a series of standard tones obtained from an auditory oddball task in UHR subjects, patient with schizophrenia, and healthy control (HC) subjects. In contrast to N1m, which is produced by repetitive stimuli, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component (magnetic counterpart: MMNm) is a neurophysiological index of the automatic detection of deviant auditory stimuli among frequent standard timuli.” Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin (2011) Aberrant Auditory Processing in Schizophrenia and in Subjects at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis by Kyung Soon Shin, June Sic Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Yuri Koh, Joon Hwan Jang, Suk Kyoon An, Brian F. O´Donnell, Chun Kee Chung and Jun Soo Kwon

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/10/20/schbul.sbr138.full.pdf+html

Do some people early on find it hard to ignore repetitive stimuli and later on if their illness progress in a direction which generates more negative symptoms to some extent lose their ability to notice a deviant within a sequence of otherwise regular stimuli?

67.) Will some people who more frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion and mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear eventually lose their ability to hear these voices Question


Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

68.) Is it possible to affect what kind of voices people hear and will this help them to recover from "schizophrenia" Question


People who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear may eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) while some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid learn to sometimes avoid the kind of voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively (2) ...

1.) Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

2.) People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore generate a more disorganized behavior.

Quote: “In an ART system, if an erroneous recognition is followed by negative reinforcement, then the system becomes more vigilant. This change in vigilance may be interpreted as a change in the system´s attentional state which increases its sensitivity to mismatches between bottom-up input patterns and active top-down critical feature patterns.” (My remarks: Negative reinforcement may generate the ability to avoid a mismatch or the ability to avoid verbal auditory illusions expressed with a negative emotional content.) Source: Carpenter, G.A., and Grossberg, S. (1987). A massively parallel architecture for a self-organizing neural pattern recognition machine. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 37, 54-115.

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/CarGro1987CVGIP.pdf

"Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content" and to selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms.

An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

Last edited by stefan on Fri Jul 05, 2013 11:03 pm; edited 736 times in total
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stefan
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 08, 2008 4:38 am
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69.) Can verbal auditory hallucinations emerge as the result of stimulus (non-verbal) - stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message while positive symptoms in all of our other senses (visual hallucinations etc) emerge due to a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise) Question

70.) Will some people fail to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS
(attentional blocking) because they are able to reveal a mismatch Question

To reveal a verbal illusion will activate what Grossberg refers to as a hypothesis testing cycle (mismatch -> arousal/novelty -> short term memory reset) and a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion may therefore generate "unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies". To no longer focus on what you were able to reveal as irrelevant (a competing task) may result in that you are able to attend and remember a neutral event in compound with CS! What can be referred to as a competing task will no longer suppress the ability to generate an act of will and this is how I understand the persistence of controlled information processing strategies in people who can be assumed to reveal a verbal illusion. The inability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS has been assumed to depend on unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies.

Quote: “…When the ISI Effect and Secondary Conditioning are combined, it is possible to understand how classical conditioning is related to processes of selective attention. This linkage is illustrated by the process of Attentional Blocking (Kamin,1968, 1969; Pavlov, 1927) whereby sensory events that do not predict new rewarding events are not attended…” (My remarks: To reveal a verbal illusion is to temporarily no longer expect to hear a verbal message in response to CS and to temporarily no longer predict the occurrence of a reinforcer in response to CS may temporarily prevent the ability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS!) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia p.6 (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

71.) Can our ability to reveal a verbal illusion briefly switch our attention to a neutral event in one of our other senses and will a neutral event like this if it consistently precedes a reinforcer (the informative event we call perception) itself become a reinforcer Question

Ambiguous auditory stimuli (CS) may trigger the need to access information and to reveal a verbal illusion when you experience the need to access information may generate the event we call perception in response to ambiguous stimuli in one of our other senses... (The rare visual hallucitions I have experienced like when I one early morning saw a giant wasp on the wall and occationally a couple of times moths on the floor late at night may have been triggered because I frequently located the source of the voices I heard to reveal the illusionary nature of these voices.)

72.) What is and why do we need to use an echoic memory Question

You are able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with an earlier auditory event (a verbal illusion can be referred to as a false memory of an earlier auditory event) and an echoic memory is a sensory buffer of earlier auditory events which makes it possible to process bottom-up sensory signals as long as it takes to select the gesture you need to use.

Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1892 (abstract)

73.) Can our ability to hear the sensory consequence of an internal gesture in integration with an earlier auditory event result in that some people start to believe that they are able to foresee the future as in precognition Question

Most people are able to restore a word in the middle of a sentence with the information they get later in that sentence and I´m able to change a short term memory of nonverbal sounds about the length of a syllable by integrating my inner voice with an earlier auditory event. (I´m listening to a nonverbal sound about the length of a syllable with my eyes closed and then with a short delay when I no longer hear the biiip open my eyes to read a random syllable while I´m trying to remember what I heard objectively.) The resulting experience resembles precognition because what I remember hearing is not what I heard objectively and seems to have predicted an unexpected event...

Quote: “Echoic memory is one of the sensory memory registers; a component of short term memory (STM) that is specific to retaining auditory information. This particular sensory store is capable of storing large amounts of auditory information that is only retained for a short period of time (3-4 seconds)...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echoic_memory

74.) Can the ability to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience gradually, by subjectively confirming whatever you expect to hear, change the context you experience to a more subjective context Question

To be able to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience may gradually, by subjectively confirming whatever you expect to hear, change the context you experience to a more subjective context and the voices I hear subjectively in response to a distorted maybe distant voice can be assumed to more easily lead to false beliefs if you think that auditory hallucinations never include an external source. (Common sense should in my opinion always be given a fair chance and M.D Hunter is a scientist who gives a more diversified and clear picture of what an auditory hallucination can be.)

I´m currently reading Toward a neurobilogy of delusions by P. R. Crlett, J.R. Talylor, X.-J. Wang, P.C. Fletcher, J.H. Krystal

Quote: ”We have outlined an account of delusional beliefs based on the tenets of animal learning theory and hierarchical Bayesian inference. We apply those tenets not only to explain dysfunctions in Pavlovian predictive learning (Corlett et al., 2006, 2007b) and instrumental conditioning (Freeman et al., 2009; Murray et al., 2008; Roiser et al., 200); Schlagenhauf et al., 2009), but also to account for the perceptual, affective and social disruptions that attend delusions (Bentall et al., 2001; Maher, 1974; Vinogradov et al., 1992).”

http://www-bmu.psychiatry.cam.ac.uk/publications/corlett10tow.pdf

75.) Can a lowering of the threshold for action selection combined with the ability to hear whatever you expect more suddenly cause a false belief Question

Bottom-up sensory signals are lowering the threshold for action selection by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response and to suppress the ability to control covert speech by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response can be assumed to affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies...

76.) Can the lost ability to discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli originate from our ability to restore a verbal message Question

Our ability to restore a verbal message rely on an ability to interpret irrelevant stimuli when we expect to access a verbal message and a failure to block a neutral stimulus in one of our other senses may depend on our ability to reveal a verbal illusion...

Quote: ”… According to Kim, "The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." Kim believes that their work has larger implications for the scientific community. This latest finding, he said, will help researchers better understand schizophrenia, autism, and other conditions in which patients "cannot filter out irrelevant stimuli."…” Source: Yale neuroscientist finds key piece to Pavlov puzzle by Sangeetha Ramaswamy

http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/1.30.98/news/neuro.html

Quote: "Kamin's blocking effect demonstrates that conditioning to a stimulus could be blocked if the stimulus were reinforced in compound with a previously conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal is exposed to conditioned stimulus 1 (CS1), which predicts the occurrence of a reinforcer. After learning the paired association between CS1 and unconditioned stimulus (US), a compound stimulus composed of CS1 and another stimulus 2 (CS2) is presented with the US. Hence both CS1 and CS2 are stimuli that predict the US. However, when tested, the animal shows little, if any, CS2-US association. This is because the occurrence of the US was fully predicted by CS1 alone, and hence no learning occurs when CS2 is presented simultaneously. In other words, CS2-US association is blocked because CS1-US association already exists." (My remarks: To reveal a verbal illusion is to temporarily no longer expect to hear a verbal message in response to CS and to temporarily no longer predict the occurrence of a reinforcer in response to CS may temporarily prevent the ability to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS!) Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blocking_effect

77.) Do people naturally focus more on monitoring the production of a sensory consequence when it is the sensory consequence they produce overtly and can this be assumed to explain why people who constantly loses their ability to control covert speech often find it much easier to control overt speech Question

78.) Are the frequently occurring loose associations I experience a characterizing feature of this illness which reflects how bottom-up sensory signals can affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals” Question

79.) Can a mechanism which allows covert speech to jump from one perspective to another in a very disturbed dialog be understood and will this make it any easier to understand why overt speech in some people with schizophrenia jumps from one subject to another based on the sounds or associations of word they have uttered Question

It is not hard to understand why heard thoughts sometimes end in the middle of a sentence when an increase in attention can take the nonverbal sounds you interpret out of their peripheral existence (you are able to reveal a verbal illusion) or why the alien thoughts you hear sometimes immediately continue with the perspective of another voice which like the previous voice ends when an increase in attention occur and so on. The ability to reveal a verbal illusion (a mismatch) can be assumed to enable an abrupt change in the perspective with which covert speech generates the next voice you hear by triggering what Grossberg refers to as a hypothesis testing cycle (mismatch -> arousal/novelty -> short term memory reset). To speak and in parallel be able to reveal a corresponding verbal illusion (1) may combined with the suppressing effect of bottom-up sensory signals (2) result in that some people during overt speech jumps from on subject to another based on the sounds or associations of word they have uttered.

1.) I assume that the sensory consequence of overt speech like the sensory consequence of covert speech can be heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and that the sound you interpret can be taken out of its peripheral existence without generating a match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce and bottom-up sensory signals...

2.) What you are able to select with a new top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control covert speech...

80.) Can the ability to consolidate and recall words be impaired in patients with schizophrenia due to a tendency or previously present ability to reveal a verbal illusion (1a 1b), because they are forced to divide their attention between non-verbal irrelevant features and verbal more relevant information (2), because they are forced to process more ambiguous stimuli (3) and because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies by suppressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response (4) Question

1a.) The ability to use covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation will be blocked whenever you are able to reveal a verbal illusion...

1b.) A tendency to reveal a verbal illusion may eventually lead to depression of a drive representation like amygdala... (The gesture (and I mean whatever gesture) you are about to produce (covertly or overtly it does not matter) may eventually take on the value of what you in avoidance were able to reveal as irrelevant because it determines a top-down sensory expectation which according to previous events consistently generates a mismatch... )

2.) To be forced to divide your attention between two tasks while you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce will not affect the ability to consolidate words in response to a verbal message, but can probaly severly affect the ablility to consolidate words in response to more ambiguous stimuli... However what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation can also make it easier to recall by supressing the ability to inhibit a verbal response and this may lead to that people find it easier to remember words expressed with a negative emotional content... (The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message... )

3.) To be forced to process more ambiguous stimuli is more demanding...

4.) Wikiquote: "One idea regarding how intrusion errors work is due to a lack of recall inhibition, which allows irrelevant information to be brought to awareness while attempting to remember" (My remarks: "Intrusion errors have been linked to deficits in self-monitoring"... )

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_errors

81.) Is the working memory of people who simultaneously use several top-down sensory expectations to attend more ambigious stimuli overloaded and can this be assumed to cause poor recall in people with an integration disorder referred to as "schizophrenia" by further diminishing the ability to inhibit a verbal response Question

The synergy of working memory and inhibitory control highlights the connection between a working memory impairment in schizophrenia and what may serve a purpose in response to a slightly distorted verbal message! (To further diminish the ability to inhibit a verbal response may contribute when you need to restore and better distinguish a slightly distorted verbal message! )

Quote: “The relationship between short-term memory and working memory is described differently by various theories, but it is generally acknowledged that the two concepts are distinct. Working memory is a theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. As such, working memory might also be referred to as working attention. Working memory and attention together play a major role in the processes of thinking. Short-term memory in general refers, in a theory-neutral manner, to the short-term storage of information, and it does not entail the manipulation or organization of material held in memory...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-term_memory#Relationship_with_working_memory

Quote: “Have you ever noticed how tiresome it can be to follow a conversation at a noisy party? Rest assured: this is not necessarily due to bad hearing – although that might make things worse. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig have found that adverse listening situations are difficult for the brain, partly because they draw on the same, limited resources supporting our short-term memory. The new findings are particularly relevant to understanding the cognitive consequences of hearing damage, a condition that affects an increasing number of people. Whether we are engaged in small talk or trying to memorise a telephone number - it is our short-term memory that ensures we don't lose track. But what if the very same memory gets additionally taxed because the words to be remembered are hard to understand? This is suggested by a new study conducted by Jonas Obleser and his team at the Max Planck Research Group "Auditory Cognition"...” Source: Medicalxpress.com

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-09-noisy-toll-short-term-memory.html

82.) Can the stressed out state you are in due to what you experience affect the ability to recall information Question

Quote: “The effects of stress on memory include interference with one’s capacity to encode and ability retrieve information.” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_stress_on_memory

83.) Will some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices develop polydipsia (excessive fluid intake) because an operant behaviour like alien covert speech is rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information Question

A hungry animal with access to water may if an operant behaviour is rewarded with food, but in too small amounts to satisfy its hunger, eventually develop polydipsia.

84.) Can a behaviour which operates on the environment to generate the voices you hear be rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information because you are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) or because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies (2) Question

1.) To listen because you experience the need to access a verbal message may result in that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion and it is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear...

2.) How informative is a loose association?

85.) Is polydipsia associated with negative symptoms, disorganization and poor outcome Question

85.) Are people who lose the ability to control their movements forced to divide their attention between their ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation Question

What you expect to feel can be used to select some features matching how the movement you are about to execute will be felt and to attend some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control the movement you are about to execute. Haptically deafferented subjects do not suffer from delusions of 'passivity' or alien control!

To lack the ability to control covert speech while you are fully aware of how the inner voice you hear is produced will generate what I refer to as a thought insertion voice...

87.) Are catatonic behaviors characterized by a marked decrease in reaction to the immediate surrounding environment, sometimes taking the form of motionless and apparent unawareness(1), rigid or bizarre postures(2), or aimless excess motor activity(3) possible to understand Question

1.) Motionless and apparent unawareness - An increase in attention (incentive motivational signals) may take more ambiguous stimuli (CS - the ability to reveal a mismatch may generate a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds...) out of their peripheral existence while you are about to produce what you expect to feel without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals...

2.) Rigid or bizarre postures - Bottom-up sensory signals can affect the threshold for action selection by suppressing the ability to inhibit a response and a movement can not be produced if bottom-up sensory signals continuously are suppressing the ability to inhibit the same response more than they suppress the ability to inhibit a movement!

3.) Aimless excess motor activity - What you expect to feel can be used to select some features matching how the movement you are about to execute will be felt and to attend some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation may suppress the ability to control the movement you are about to execute.

88.) How can a gain control process, called vigilance control, “track” the degree of match between input exemplar and matched prototype Question

Read Controlling the Content of Conscious Experiences: Exemplars and Prototypes (p.9-10) from Adaptive Resonance Theory by Gail A. Carpenter and Stephen Grossberg Invited chapter: Encyclopedia of Machine Learnig by Claude Sammut and Geoffrey I. Webb, Eds and consider what I write in my attempts to understand how people in response to bottom-up sensory signals more or less can lose their ability to consciously control covert speech.

http://digilib.bu.edu/ojs/index.php/trs/article/viewFile/92/91

89.) Can a resonant matching process affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies while it determines what sounds enter consciousness and can this generate a mixed bottom-up and top-down driven experience corresponding to the perception of an external voice "that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal" Question

90.) Are tonically hyperactive "volitional" signals involved in generating auditory hallucinations that are not under your voluntary/volitional control because they inhibit inhibitory interneurons in the on-centre of a top-down expectation
(1) and/or are incentive motivational signals involved in generating auditory hallucinations because they are used to attend what more or less suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response (2) Question

1.) Quote: “A top-down expectation is not always modulatory. The excitatory/inhibitory balance in the modulatory on-centre of a top-down expectation can be modified by volitional control from the basal ganglia. If, for example, volitional signals inhibit inhibitory interneurons in the on-centre, then read-out of a top-down expectation from a recognition category can fire cells in the on-centre prototype and thereby enable mental imagery, thinking, and planning ahead to occur. If these volitional signals become tonically hyperactive, then top-down expectations can fire without overt intention, leading to properties such as schizophrenic hallucinations (Grossberg 2000a). The ability to imagine and plan ahead thus risks having hallucinations, and all these properties follow from using top-down expectations to stabilize predictive learned memories.” Source:Cortical and subcortical predictive dynamics and learning during perception, cognition, emotion and action in Phl. Trans. R. Soc. B (2009) 364, 1223-1234 by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666707/pdf/rstb20080307.pdf

2.) Incentive motivational signals ("a type of motivationally-biased attention") may shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and to lose the ability to control covert speech is to lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response...

Quote: ”Most modern conceptions of volition address it as a process of action control that becomes automatized (see e.g., Heckhausen and Kuhl; Gollwitzer; Boekaerts and Corno)... …The book A Bias for Action discusses the difference between willpower and motivation. In doing so, the authors use the term volition as a synonym for willpower and describe briefly the theories of Kurt Lewin. While Lewin argues that motivation and volition are one and the same, the authors claim that Ach argues differently. According to the authors, Ach claims that there is a certain threshold of desire that distinguishes motivation from volition: when desire lies below this threshold, it is motivation, and when it crosses over, it becomes volition...” (My remarks: Intrumental and pavlovian incentive learning processes may generate what I refer to as incentive motivational signals and what Grossberg refers to as tonically hyperactive volitional signals.) Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volition_(psychology)

91.) Can an increase in volume like a better match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals increase the gain of a top-down expectation and/or can an increase in volume like a better match between bottom-up sensory signals and a top-down sensory expectation shift the allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation Question

- The subjective loudness of the sound I interpret increases in synchronicity with the pitch of my own voice and a temporary increase in volume of the nonverbal sound which substitutes the pitch of my inner voice can in competition for limited attentional resources suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response or/and inhibit inhibitory interneurons in the on-centre of a top-down expectation by increasing the gain of a top-down expectation.

-------------------------------------------

Stefan Andersson nemo661@yahoo.se

Last edited by stefan on Mon Jun 17, 2013 1:40 pm; edited 156 times in total
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stefan
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 08, 2008 4:56 am
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To access some of the soundfiles I have used to understand nonverbal and verbal illusions better go to

http://www.freewebs.com/stefan661/

NONVERBAL ILLUSIONS

1.) To try to further confirm the assumption that memories guided my attention towards external sounds I first recorded a couple of notes coming from a violin in a certain sequence and after that I played them all together with white noise to see if I could single them out with the help of a short term memory. This actually worked and I heard the "melody" from the beginning of the tape over and over again. I am not satisfied with this soundfile, but it will have to do for now on. (Maybe if it´s quiet, you use earphones, increase the volume to maximum and listen when you remember the three notes from the beginning it will work. To make sure that the short term memory doesn´t fade away it is important that you recall the "melody" immediately after you have heard it. If you hear it more than one time it is an illusion.) Once when I repeatedly called a number that was busy the busy tone bip-bip-bip....was heard when I lifted the phone before dialing and holding it close to my ears and then when I held the phone closer to my ears the perception was more objective and I heard the continuous biiiiib. This is interesting because it indicates that you might loose control of the pitch in a smooth sound if you attend the less verbal aspects of speech.

2.) Normally if a tone is interrupted by noise (biib-noise-biib-noise...) the tone will be heard as if it is going on continuously (biiiiiib) thanks to restoration. This is not always the case if you are diagnosed with schizophrenia and hear voices.

To generate a verbal response is probably much more demanding than to generate a non-verbal response and a more demanding task is harder to control... (A less demanding non-verbal task makes it easier to reveal what you are able to hear more objectively and some people tend to reveal a non-verbal illusion because they learn to pay more attention to all features matching what they expect to hear... )

VERBAL ILLUSIONS

3.) When I listen to a recorded sound like this played in intervals with short breaks and synchronize my thoughts by reading or thinking something syllable by syllable when the sound is heard (sometimes in a couple of minutes) I end up hearing "my own" voice. The voice I hear when I do like this is very distinct and clear. (Mostly it sounds like a synthetic and gender neutral voice.) If I increase the volume of the sound behind my own voice in this test the illusion of hearing a voice is lost.

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stefan
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 18, 2008 3:49 am
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QUOTE 1-55

1.) Quote: "...This article suggests how brain mechanisms of learning, attention, and volition may give rise to hallucinations during schizophrenia and other mental disorders... ...Top-down motor expectations are also proposed to exist (Bullock and Grossberg, 1988;Bullock et al., 1998). For example, they can code the desired final, or target, position of a limb, such as an arm, during a reaching movement (see Figure 3). Such expectations can also be readout as priming events that do not, in themselves, cause a movement (Georgopoulos et al., 1986)... ...Top-down sensory expectations help to unitize the contents of bottom-up sensory signals, whereas top-down motor expectations help to unitize the motor gestures that are used to read-out articulatory movements. Under normal conditions, sensory expectations of self-generated sounds are subliminally primed when motor expectations are used to produce speech. With a hyperactive volitional system, these subliminal primes can become suprathreshold..." Source: How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention and volition (1999) by Stephen Grossberg

http://cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro99.hall.pdf

2.) Quote: “…Allport – modules of attention Allport (1980, 1993) has proposed that attention consists of a number of modules. Each module deals with a different ability or skill, so that one module may deal with auditory information, another with visual information, etc. Allport suggests that each module has its own resources and each has a limited capacity. (This is in contrast to capacity theories that regard attention as being controlled by a single limited capacity.) Allport´s theory predicts that similarity will be a major factor in the performance of dual task experiments (see Figure 3.2). When tasks are similar they compete for the resources of one module and interfere with each other. This makes it difficult to perform them simultaneously. However, dissimilar tasks use different modules and do not require the same resources. These tasks do not interfere with each other and may be performed simultaneously (they are processed in parallel)…" Source: Attention and pattern recognition by Nick Lund is available in google books

3.) Quote: "...Before someone talks, a neural signal travels from speech production areas to auditory cortex. It carries a prediction of the speech sounds based on a copy of the motor command and triggers a “corollary discharge.” If the corollary discharge matches what the speaker hears, as it should when the sound is self-produced, the sensory experience is reduced. The sensory experience thus carries a tag declaring it "self-produced,"... …Ford explained, “In healthy, normal controls, the corollary discharge is a precise representation of what you expect, and there is suppression when what you hear is what you expected. In schizophrenics, that relationship is off; and it is no longer precise.”…" Source: Schizophreniaforum.org


http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=1343

4.) Quote: "...motor commands are monitored and evaluated as they occur, before the effector have been actuated... ...Internal feedback of this nature can affect both ongoing motor activity and sensory systems... ...These discharges may assist in the distinction between self-generated and externally produced movements; they also allow (or represent) monitoring of the motor commands before the effector response has occurred... ...Whereas internal feedback associated with simpler motor act is below the level of consciousness, one might postulate that the corollary discharges accompanying conscious thought are themselves conscious. If so, the subjective experience of these discharges should correspond to nothing less than the experience of will or intention..." Source: Schizophrenia bulletin (VOL. 4, NO. 4, 1978) Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders, Irwin Feinberg

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/4/4/636.pdf

5.) Quote: " How do forward models relate to efference copy and corollary discharge?... …Current research on forward models generally uses the term ‘efference copy’ to refer to the output of the motor command system that is fed into the predictor, and ‘corollary discharge’, where used at all, to refer to the output of the predictor, i.e. the signal fed into the sensory system. However there is an alternative tradition in neuroethology that defines `corollary discharge' as "any neural signal that branches off centrally from an efference signal" [42]. ‘Efference copy’ is then taken tobe that subset of corollary discharge in which the signal is “exactly proportionate to the efference signal” and thus used to “exactly counterbalance the reafference”…” Source: Neural mechanisms for prediction: do insects have models? (2004) by Barbara Webb (p.7)

http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/bwebb/publications/tins_compact.pdf

6.) Quote: “...A forward model system involving transmission of an "efference copy" of motor commands to the sensory cortex to generate "corollary discharges" that prepare it for impending sensory consequences of self-initiated motor acts... ...We suggest that this premovement burst of synchronous neural activity is a reflection of the forward model preparing the CNS for the sensory consequences of its own actions,...” Source: American Journal of Psychiatry, 164:458-466, March 2007 Synch Before You Speak: Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Judith M. Ford, Ph.D., Brian J. Roach, B.S., William O. Faustman, Ph.D., and Daniel H. Mathalon, Ph.D., M.D.

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/3/458

Quote 7: “…Over the short time scale of a few milliseconds, the brain engaged its inhibitory circuitry to make the neurons fire in synchrony. This simultaneous, correlated firing creates a loud, but simple, signal. The effect was much like a crowd at a sporting event chanting, "Let's go team!..." Source: “Can you hear me now?” Researchers detail how neurons decide how to transmit information." March 25th, 2011.

http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-03-neurons-transmit.html

8.) Quote: “…The lack of voluntary control over the experience is a key feature of auditory hallucinations, which might explain why self-generated inner speech is classified as external in origin. According to this proposal, hallucinations are experienced when verbal thoughts are unintended and unwanted. Because deficits in cognitive processes, such as inhibitory control, are thought to render people more susceptible to intrusive and recurrent unwanted thoughts, studies have linked auditory hallucinations with deficits in cognitive inhibition…” Source: Auditory Hallucinations in Psychiatric Illness from the march 2010 issue of Psychiatric Times by Flavie Waters

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cme/display/article/10168/1534546

9.) Quote: "...Attention is controlled by sensory and cognitive expectations which are matched against sensory inputs. Attention is also controlled by emotional and motivational expectations, which are regulated by learned feedback between cognitive and reward and punishment centers..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

10.) Quote: "Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception... ...These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception." Source: The Journal of Neuroscience, August 5, 2009, 29(31):9819-9825; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6018-08.2009 Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Möttönen, Riikka and Watkins, Kate E

http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/29/31/9819

11.) Quote: “…Recent advances in the neurosciences provide clues to why patients report an auditory experience in the absence of any perceptual input. Spontaneous activity in the early sensory cortices may in fact form the basis for the original signal. Early neuronal computation systems are known to interpret this activity and engage in decision-making processes to determine whether a percept has been detected. A brain system that is abnormally tuned in to internal acoustic experiences may therefore report an auditory perception in the absence of any external sound. Ford and colleagues recently suggested that patients with auditory hallucinations may have excessive attentional focus toward internally generated events—the brains of persons who have auditory hallucinations may therefore be overinterpreting spontaneous sensory activity that is largely ignored in healthy brains…” Source: Auditory Hallucinations in Psychiatric Illness from the march 2010 issue of Psychiatric Times by Flavie Waters

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cme/display/article/10168/1534546

12.) Quote: "…Although "voices" are the anticipated sensory experience, it appears that even primary auditory cortex is "turned on" and "tuned in" to process internal acoustic information at the cost of processing external sounds…" Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin 2009 Jan;35(1):58-66, Tuning in to the voices: A Multisite fMRI Study of Auditory by Judith M. Ford and colleagues

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/1/58.full.pdf+html

13.) Quote: "... It has long been thought that echoic memory plays an important role in speech perception, both in supporting non-categorical comparison among spoken materials (Crowder, 1983; cf. Pisoni and Tash, 1974), and in providing an auditory record that permits the processing of longer-lasting, supra-segmental structures in connected speech (Frankish, 1989). In line with this proposal, we suggest that ongoing maintenance of auditory information, at multiple levels of representation, plays an important role in permitting topdown information to influence perceptual processing of speech..." Source: Hearing speech sounds:Top-down influences on the interface between audition and speech perception. Hearing Research 229 (2007) 132-147

Abstract:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18921836


14.) Quote: “…Neuroscientists have long distinguished two possible mechanisms to explain this attenuated response. One mechanism relies on prediction: when a motor command is generated—touch face with right hand, for example—the brain predicts what the sensory consequence will be, based on previous experience. This predicted effect is removed from sensory signals sent to the brain, reducing the response… ...The authors designed three trials: contact, no contact, and a delay between the tap and the force generated. In a previous study, the authors had established that a 300-millisecond delay does not cause attenuation, so they used a 500-millisecond delay as a baseline measure...” Source: Self-Generated Touch: A Neural Perspective by Liza Gross | DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040048

http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/Gro_PLoSB_06.pdf

15.) Quote: "We have found strong evidence to suggest that attenuation of self-generated tactile sensation results from a predictive mechanism. When one finger made a tapping movement above a finger of the other hand, sensation in the passive finger was attenuated only when contact was expected between the fingers. The level of attenuation observed when contact was expected was the same whether or not the contact actually occurred… …The absence of attenuation in participants in group B, who experienced taps in the passive finger, but never experienced a contact event in the active finger, is an important result for several reasons. First, it serves as a control for effects of divided attention. Participants in group A had to attend to two different tasks at the same time: generating a tap with the active finger and judging a sensation in the passive finger. This division of attention may be less pronounced in delay trials, where the two tasks were separated by 500 ms, than in contact and no-contact trials, where the two tasks were simultaneous. This difference in attentional demand could conceivably be responsible for the difference in magnitude judgment between these trial types. However, group B was essentially identical to group A with respect to attention: participants had to generate tapping movements with amplitudes and velocities matched to those made by participants in group A, and the judgment task in the passive finger was identical in both groups. If divided attention were responsible for the differences in magnitude judgment between trials with and without a delay in group A, the same differences would be seen between no-contact and delay trials in group B. Because no such differences were observed, we can conclude that the reduction in perceived magnitude seen in group A was due to a specific attenuation mechanism and not the attentional demands of the task...” Source: Bays PM, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2006) Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive. PLoS Biol 4(2): e28.

http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/BayFlaWol_PLoSB_06.pdf

16.) Quote: "In schizophrenia, functional hallucinations are defined as those that occur when a patient simultaneously receives a real stimulus in the perceptual field concerned (e.g., hallucinated voices heard simultaneously with and specific to the real sound of running water)... ...Another hallucinated voice occurred simultaneously with actual speech uttered by television announcers. The semantic content was the same as that of the "engine voice," but the "television voice" sounded human, exactly like the real voice of the television announcer who was speaking at the same time. For example, the "television voice" was described as sounding like an adult woman with a northern British accent and "serious" emotional prosody... In this Patient, we observed a direct relationship between the timbre, prosody, and pitch of real environmental sounds and simultaneously perceived auditory hallucinations. Evidence from functional neuroimaging supports a general hypothesis that auditory hallucinations can arise because of abnormal activation in the auditory cortex. This case suggests a further hypothesis: normal activation in the auditory system, which corresponds to neural encoding of natural-sound object and location characteristics, may be misinterpreted, leading to the false perception of functional auditory hallucinations that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal..." Source: Letter to the Editor, Characteristics of Functional Auditory Hallucinations by Michael D. Hunter, M.R.C.Psych., and Peter W.R. Woodruff, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.c.Psych. Sheffield, U.K. Am J Psychiatry 161:923, May 2004

http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/923

17.) Quote: "...A tendency to extract spurious, message-like meaning from meaningless noise was assessed as a risk factor leading to shizophrenia-spectrum disorders by assessing word length of speech illusions elicited by multispeaker babble in 43 people with prodromal symptoms..." Source: Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in a prodromal population" written in British journal of psychiatry (2007), 191, 355-356. by Ralph E. Hoffman and colleagues.

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/355

18.) Quote: "...mental states include not only affects and emotions, but also goals and intentions. A person who was unaware of their goals could, on the one hand, be a slave to every environmental influence or, on the other hand, be prone to perseverative or stereotyped behaviour, because they would not have the insight to recognize that certain goals were unobtainable or inappropriate..." Source: Theory of mind in Schizophrenia. (1994) by CD Frith quoted by Stephen Grossberg in The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000)

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

19.) Quote: “...the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception...” Source: Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/Reprints/HL0016.pdf

20.) Quote: “Echoic memory is one of the sensory memory registers; a component of short term memory (STM) that is specific to retaining auditory information. This particular sensory store is capable of storing large amounts of auditory information that is only retained for a short period of time (3-4 seconds)...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echoic_memory

21.) Quote: "...Respondent conditioning is the result of stimulus-stimulus contingencies, while operant conditioning is the result of response-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. There are, however certain stimulus-stimulus contingencies that affect operant behaviour. Theoretically speaking, stimulus-stimulus effects on operant conditioning may be regarded as resulting from respondent conditioning interacting with operant conditioning..." (p. 103) "...Before concluding this discussion of the distinction between respondent and operant conditioning, it is important to note that pure instances of either are rare. Most learned behaviour consists of both..." (p. 40) "…Some stimuli, such as food and water, are reinforcers due to phylogeny (i.e., the evolutionary history of the species). These stimuli are called primary reinforcers. Other stimuli can become reinforcers due to events that occur in the history of an individual. Typically, these reinforcers have been paired with existing reinforcers. For example, if a tone regularly precedes food, the tone will become a reinforcer – that is, it can be used to operantly condition an arbitrary response such as a lever press. A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that has become a reinforcer by being paired with a reinforcer. Conditioned reinforcement expands the range of stimuli that can become reinforcers. The evolutionary significance of conditioned reinforcement is that responding to produce a stimulus that has occurred in close temporal association with a primary reinforcer is likely to bring the animal closer to the primary reinforcer. Natural selection would favour this because primary reinforcers usually benefit the animal or its reproductivity…" (p. 36) Source: The science of learning by Joseph Pear

22.) Quote: "...These failures of perception are studied because they isolate and clarify some fundamental processes that normally lead to accuracy of perception and appropriate interpretation of ambiguous sources..." Source: Warren, R.M., & Warren, R.P. (1970). Auditory illusions and confusions. Scientific American, 223, 30-36.

http://step.psy.cmu.edu/articles/WarrenWarren70.pdf

23.) Quote: “…Any attempt to elucidate the nature and mechanism of passivity phenomena, i.e., experiences that one's conscious actions or thoughts have not been 'willed' by oneself, requires… …Thus, action selection is the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals. Action selection may be uncoupled from drives and strivings as a result of a lowering of the threshold for action selection--as is suggested to be the case in schizophrenic passivity phenomena…” Source: Conscious Cogn. 2004 Sep;13(3):579-609. A neuroanatomical model of passivity phenomena. Behrendt RP.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15336249

24.) Quote: "...Figure 5: The simplest CogEM model: Three types of interacting representations (sensory, drive, and motor) that control three types of learning (conditioned reinforcer, incentive motivational, and motor) may be used to explain many conditioning data. Three types of learning take place among these representations: Conditioned reinforcer learning strengthens the adaptive weights, or long-term memory traces, in a S --> D pathway when a CS activates its sensory representation S just before the drive representation D is activated by an unconditioned stimulus (US), or other previously conditioned reinforcer CSs. The ability of the CS to subsequently activate D via this learned pathway is one of its key properties as a conditioned reinforcer. As these S --> D associations are being formed, D --> S incentive motivational learning also occurs, due to the same pairing of CS and US. Incentive motivational learning enables an activated drive representation D to prime, or modulate, the sensory representations S of all cues, including the CSs, that have consistently been correlated with it. Activating D hereby generates a "motivational set" by priming all of the sensory and cognitive representations that have been associated with that drive’s emotion in the past. These incentive motivational signals are a type of motivationally-biased attention. The S --> M motor, or habit, learning enables the sensorimotor maps, vectors, and gains that are involved in sensory-motor control to be adaptively calibrated, thereby enabling a CS to read-out correctly calibrated movements..." (p.8 ) "...In the circuit of Figure 5, each drive representation D obeys a poyvalent constraint whereby it can generate incentive motivational output signals to sensory representations only if it gets a sufficiently large primary or conditioned reinforcer input att the same time that it gets a sufficiently large internal drive input. The internal drive input designates whether an internal drive, such as hunger, thirst, sex etc., is high and in need of satisfaction..." (p.12 ) "...The CogEM model suggests that one possible cause of decreased prefrontal activity may be a reduction in incentive motivational signals from depressed amygdala circuits that project to the prefrontal cortex… …Figure 12 When a drive representation like the amygdale gets depressed, its diminished activation by sensory events prevents normal interpretation of emotionally important events, and also attenuates motivationally appropriate signals to and from the prefrontal cortex... (p.15 ) “…Suppose that a drive representation, such as the amygdala, generates depressed responses to its inputs, for any of several possible reasons. Such a local imbalance in the model circuit of Figure 11 can generate many negative symptoms that are characteristic of schizophrenia, including the loss of a Theory of Mind (Frith, 1992, 1994), and the impoverishment of will that a Theory of Mind does not explain...” (p.16 ) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

25.) Quote: ”… The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. It suggests that speech perception is multimodal, that is, that it involves information from more than one sensory modality…” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGurk_effect

26.) Quote: "...A related problem concerns how to understand abnormal behaviors on a continuum with normal behaviors. During the past few decades, neural models have been developed of how normal cognitive and emotional processes learn from the environment, focus attention and act upon motivationally important events, and cope with unexpected events. When arousal or volitional signals in these models are suitably altered, they give rise to symptoms that strikingly resemble negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including flat affect, impoverishment of will, attentional problems, loss of a theory of mind, thought derailment, hallucinations, and delusions. The present article models how emotional centers of the brain, such as the amygdala, interact with sensory and prefrontal cortices (notably ventral, or orbital, prefrontal cortex) to generate affective states, attend to motivationally salient sensory events, and elicit motivated behaviors. Closing this feedback loop between cognitive and emotional centers is predicted to generate a cognitive-emotional resonance that can support conscious awareness. When such emotional centers become depressed, negative symptoms of schizophrenia emerge in the model. Such emotional centers are modeled as opponent affective 2 processes, such as fear and relief, whose response amplitude and sensitivity are calibrated by an arousal level and chemical transmitters that slowly inactivate, or habituate, in an activitydependent way. These opponent processes exhibit an Inverted-U whereby behavior become depressed if the arousal level is chosen too large or too small. The negative symptoms are due to the way in which the depressed opponent process interacts with other circuits throughout the brain..." (abstract) "...classical conditioning is far more subtle and relevant to complex human cognitive-emotional behavior than one might first realize..." (p. 4) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

27.) Quote: "...Can information be positively reinforcing even when it is aversive? Clearly this is a contradiction. How, then, can we explain the fact that people respond to receiving bad news?... ...As the ratio of the probability of receiving good news to the ratio of receiving bad news decreases, the probability of emitting observing responses also decreases... ...very special conditions are required in order for it to be one..." Source: The science of learning, Joseph Pear, Information as a Positive reinforcement p. 249 (available in google books)

28.) Quote: "The informativeness of a stimulus should not depend on whether it is correlated with positive or negative events, because bad news is just as informative as good news..." Source: Behaviour analysis and learning W. David Pierce, Carl D. C (available in google books)

29.) Quote: “…Normal persons report an ‘inner voice’ which becomes active when one is not speaking overtly. As argued by many authors, this inner voice is an important part of the experience of the self. I have argued that the technical prerequisites for such an inner voice are quite easily established as soon as there is a re-entrant mapping in which output from speech production is internally streamed as input to speech understanding…” p. 11

Source: LANGUAGE RE-ENTRANCE AND THE “INNER VOICE” by Luc Steels

http://www.csl.sony.fr/downloads/papers/2003/steels-03d.pdf

30.) Quote: “…There is plenty of neurophysiological evidence for such a re-entrant system in the human brain. The same left inferior frontal region is activated both for listening to somebody else’s speech and for listening to your own speech — even if this speech is not pronounced (McGuire et al., 1996)… …Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients provide further evidence that a re-entrant language system is possible in the human brain but it also shows that this mechanism may fail to function properly or have negative side effects. Schizophrenic patients claim to hear inner voices. They are no longer able to distinguish whether the speech stream produced by their own language production system is internally or externally produced (Frith and Done, 1988). So as with many evolutionary advantages, there are also disadvantages and possible disorders…” p. 9-10

Source: LANGUAGE RE-ENTRANCE AND THE “INNER VOICE” by Luc Steels

http://www.csl.sony.fr/downloads/papers/2003/steels-03d.pdf

31.) Quote: ”…Pavlovian conditioning is largely responsible for our motivation to respond in any situation. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is what we learn to do to satisfy these motivational states. Source: Organisational Behaviour Modification by Jonathan Gabbai on June 14, 2001

http://gabbai.com/management/organisational-behaviour-modification

32.) Quote: “…Signals that consistently precede food intake can become conditioned stimuli for a set of bodily responses that prepares the body for food and digestion. These reflexive responses include the secretion of digestive juices into the stomach and the secretion of certain hormones into the blood stream, and they induce a state of hunger (Psychology 104). An example of conditioned hunger is the "appetizer effect". Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is dinnertime, can cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal…” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

33.) Quote: …Incentive motivational learning enables an activated drive representation D to prime, or modulate, the sensory representations S of all cues, including the CSs, that have consistently been correlated with it. Activating D hereby generates a "motivational set" by priming all of the sensory and cognitive representations that have been associated with that drive’s emotion in the past..." Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

34.) Quote: ”…Pairing of a CS with a US has two consequences: (1) The sensory represen-tation of the CS becomes associated with the drive representation of the US (conditioned rein-forcement learning in Grossberg´s terms), and (2) the drive representation of the US becomes associated with the sensory representation of CS (incentive motivation learning in Gross-berg´s terms)… …Incentive motivation associations reflect the association of the US with a CS representation and mediate the enhancement of the sensory representation of the CS…” Animal learning and cognition: A neural network approach, Nestor A. Schmajuk, p 62. (available in google books)

35.) Quote: ”… If motor production mediates sensory perception, then one assumes that this CP effect is a result of learning to produce speech. Eimas et al. (1971), however, found that infants already have speech CP before they begin to speak. Perhaps, then, it is an innate effect, evolved to "prepare" us to learn to speak.[4] But Kuhl (1987) found that chinchillas also have "speech CP" even though they never learn to speak, and presumably did not evolve to do so.[5] Lane (1965) went on to show that CP effects can be induced by learning alone, with a purely sensory (visual) continuum in which there is no motor production discontinuity to mediate the perceptual discontinuity.[6] He concluded that speech CP is not special after all, but merely a special case of Lawrence's classic demonstration that stimuli to which you learn to make a different response become more distinctive and stimuli to which you learn to make the same response become more similar…” Source:Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorical_perception

36.) Quote: "Kamin's blocking effect demonstrates that conditioning to a stimulus could be blocked if the stimulus were reinforced in compound with a previously conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal is exposed to conditioned stimulus 1 (CS1), which predicts the occurrence of a reinforcer. After learning the paired association between CS1 and unconditioned stimulus (US), a compound stimulus composed of CS1 and another stimulus 2 (CS2) is presented with the US. Hence both CS1 and CS2 are stimuli that predict the US. However, when tested, the animal shows little, if any, CS2-US association. This is because the occurrence of the US was fully predicted by CS1 alone, and hence no learning occurs when CS2 is presented simultaneously. In other words, CS2-US association is blocked because CS1-US association already exists." Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blocking_effect

37.) Quote: ”… According to Kim, "The blocking phenomenon is one way that animals discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli." Kim believes that their work has larger implications for the scientific community. This latest finding, he said, will help researchers better understand schizophrenia, autism, and other conditions in which patients "cannot filter out irrelevant stimuli."…” Source: Yale neuroscientist finds key piece to Pavlov puzzle by Sangeetha Ramaswamy

http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/1.30.98/news/neuro.html

38.) Quote: ”… These data demonstrate first that abnormal prediction error as assessed in the Kamin blocking task is associated with negative and depressive symptoms rather than positive symptoms in high functioning schizophrenia patients…” Source: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 1;32(1):116-23. Epub 2007 Aug 3.Abnormal prediction error is associated with negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. Moran PM, Owen L, Crookes AE, Al-Uzri MM, Reveley MA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764799

39.) Quote: “…When the ISI Effect and Secondary Conditioning are combined, it is possible to understand how classical conditioning is related to processes of selective attention. This linkage is illustrated by the process of Attentional Blocking (Kamin,1968, 1969; Pavlov, 1927) whereby sensory events that do not predict new rewarding events are not attended…” Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia p.6 (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

40.) Quote: “…5. Attentional Blocking The CogEM model explains attentional blocking as a result of three properties interacting together: 1. Conditioned reinforcer CSs can amplify the activation of their sensory representations S via positive feedback from the drive representations D to which they are conditioned. 2. The sensory representations S compete among themselves for a limited capacity short term memory (STM) activation. 3. Other, non CS, cues lose activation via competition within the limited capacity STM, and can thereby learn slowly if at all. Property (1) is realized as follows: The combination of learned S -> D conditioned reinforcer learning and D -> S incentive motivational learning form a positive feedback loop S -> D -> S that is activated when S is turned on by its conditioned reinforcer CS. This positive feedback quickly draws attention to CS by amplifying the activation of its sensory representations (see Figure 6). Said in another way, the conditioned reinforcer uses motivational feedback to drawn attention to itself…” Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia p.9 (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

41.) Quote: “Signals that consistently precede food intake can become conditioned stimuli for a set of bodily responses that prepares the body for food and digestion. These reflexive responses include the secretion of digestive juices into the stomach and the secretion of certain hormones into the blood stream, and they induce a state of hunger (Psychology 104). An example of conditioned hunger is the "appetizer effect". Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is dinnertime, can cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is involved in the initiation of eating. The nigrostriatal pathway, which includes the substantia nigra, the lateral hypothalamus, and the basal ganglia have been shown to be involved in hunger motivation.” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

42.) Quote: “…During classical conditioning an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as a shock, can elicit an unconditioned response (UR), such as fear. Before conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a bell, does not elicit fear. However, pairing the CS with the US on a number of learning trials enables the CS to acquire some of the reinforcing properties of the shock. It can then elicit a conditioned response (CR), including fear, on its own. When this happens, the CS is called a conditioned reinforcer, because it has acquired reinforcing properties through conditioning…” (p.4) A second important property of classical conditioning is Secondary Conditioning (Figure 3), which is the process whereby conditioned reinforcers can be used as rewards in their own right. Secondary conditioning involves at least two learning phases. In the first phase, a first CS (CS1) is associated with a US, say shock, until it becomes a conditioned reinforcer that is capable of eliciting fear. In the second learning phase, a new conditioned stimulus (call it CS2) is paired with the conditioned reinforcer CS1 until CS2 also becomes a conditioned reinforcer…” (p.5) “…Figure 13. Opponent proces-sing: A given CS can become conditioned both to the onset of a reinforcing event, as well as to its offset. The offset response may be due to an antagonistic rebound of activation within a drive representation that codes an opponent emotional response to the one caused by onset of the reinforcing event…" (p.16) “…Antagonistic rebounds can be triggered within an opponent process in at least two ways: a sudden decrease of a phasic input to one channel of the opponent circuit, and an unexpected event..." (p.18 )Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

43.) Quote “It is now well recognized that there are several distinct arousal systems in the brain, and that they interact with one another… …This article discusses one type of arousal: conditioned reinforcer/incentive motivational arousal, and how its depression can lead to negative schizophrenic symptoms. Within the larger Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) of which the CogEM model forms a part (Grossberg, 1999b), there are also several other types of arousal. These include the type of volitional arousal whereby a learned top-down expectation is converted from a modulator, or prime, of bottomup information, into a suprathreshold activation that can be used to control internal fantasy, rehearsal, and planning (Grossberg, 1999a). When this type of arousal becomes imbalanced, the model undergoes a type of hallucination with many properties similar to those observed during schizophrenia. Another type of arousal is activated when bottom-up information mismatches top-down expectations, thereby leading to reset of short-term memory and other reactions that are mediated by a type of orienting arousal. Yet other types of arousal are used to control various action systems. The ART brain models thus predict the need for functionally different types of arousal. It remains to test how well the predicted arousal mechanisms match known brain arousal systems…” (p.25 ) Source: The Imbalanced Brain: From Normal Behavior To Schizophrenia (2000) by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.cns.bu.edu/Profiles/Grossberg/Gro.BioPsy2000.pdf

44.) Quote: "...When the patients were divided into diagnostic subgroups containing two different types of schizophrenia, Non-Paranoid (associated with more negative symptoms) and Paranoid (associated with more positive symptoms) we found that only the non-paranoid patients showed abnormal Kamin blocking..." Source: Attention in rats, children and people with schizophrenia September 12, 2002 at 16:30 Dr Paula M. Moran, Lecturer in Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Leicester

http://www.le.ac.uk/ua/pr/ebulletin/archive/speaker_moran.html

45.) Quote: “In the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) perceivers are conceptualized as forming perceptual judgments by evaluating and integrating multiple ambiguous sources of information, in an optimal manner based on relative goodness of match...” Source: Trends Cogn Sci. 1999 Aug;3( 8 ):310-317.Speechreading: illusion or window into pattern recognition by Dominic W. Massaro

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10431185

46.) Quote: “One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) suggests that a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice…” Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin Volume 37, Issue 5. Subjective Loudness and Reality of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Activation of the Inner Speech Processing Network by Ans Vercammen, Henderikus Knegtering, Richard Bruggeman and André Aleman

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/1009.abstract

47.) Quote: “Schizophrenic illnesses occur with approximately the same incidence in all human populations with a characteristic distribution (slightly earlier in males) of ages of onset. Given that the predisposition (which presumably is genetic) is associated with a procreative disadvantage why do such illnesses persist? Here it is suggested that these conditions are a manifestation of genetic diversity in the evolution of the specifically human characteristic of language, an innovation that has occurred by a process of progressive hemispheric specialization – the establishment of dominance for some critical component of language in one or the other hemisphere. Individuals who develop schizophrenic symptoms show lesser anatomical and functional asymmetries than the population as a whole; such symptoms may reflect “dominance failure” for language.” Source: Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language by T.J. Crow

http://people.usd.edu/~cliff/Courses/Advanced%20Seminars%20in%20Neuroendocrinology/Schizophrenia/Crow97.pdf

Quote: "Individuals lacking the typical left hemisphere advantage for language, in particular for phonological components, would be at increased risk of the typical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and delusions." Source: Angrilli A, Spironelli C, Elbert T, Crow TJ, Marano G, et al. (2009) Schizophrenia as Failure of Left Hemispheric Dominance for the Phonological Component of Language.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004507#abstract0

48.) Quote: It was originally thought that the process underlying classical conditioning was one where the conditioned stimulus becomes associated with, and eventually elicits, the unconditioned response. But many observations do not support this hypothesis. For example, the conditioned response is often quite different to the unconditioned response. Learning theorists now more commonly suggest that the CS comes to signal or predict the US. In the case of the salivating dogs in Pavlov's experiment, the bell tone signaled and predicted the arrival of the dog food, thus resulting in the dog salivating. Robert A. Rescorla provided a clear summary of this change in thinking, and its consequences, in his 1988 article "Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is." Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

Contingency approach: Rescorla believes that CS comes to predict US.

Source: Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is by Robert A. Rescorla

http://www.stanford.edu/class/psych227/RESCORLA%20(1988).pdf

49.) Quote: “A top-down expectation is not always modulatory. The excitatory/inhibitory balance in the modulatory on-centre of a top-down expectation can be modified by volitional control from the basal ganglia. If, for example, volitional signals inhibit inhibitory interneurons in the on-centre, then read-out of a top-down expectation from a recognition category can fire cells in the on-centre prototype and thereby enable mental imagery, thinking, and planning ahead to occur. If these volitional signals become tonically hyperactive, then top-down expectations can fire without overt intention, leading to properties such as schizophrenic hallucinations (Grossberg 2000a). The ability to imagine and plan ahead thus risks having hallucinations, and all these properties follow from using top-down expectations to stabilize predictive learned memories.” Source:Cortical and subcortical predictive dynamics and learning during perception, cognition, emotion and action in Phl. Trans. R. Soc. B (2009) 364, 1223-1234 by Stephen Grossberg

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666707/pdf/rstb20080307.pdf

50.) Quote: ” Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action. It is defined as purposive striving, and is one of the primary human psychological functions (the others being affection [affect or feeling], motivation [goals and expectations] and cognition [thinking]). Volitional processes can be applied consciously, and they can be automatized as habits over time. Most modern conceptions of volition address it as a process of action control that becomes automatized (see e.g., Heckhausen and Kuhl; Gollwitzer; Boekaerts and Corno)... …The book A Bias for Action discusses the difference between willpower and motivation. In doing so, the authors use the term volition as a synonym for willpower and describe briefly the theories of Kurt Lewin. While Lewin argues that motivation and volition are one and the same, the authors claim that Ach argues differently. According to the authors, Ach claims that there is a certain threshold of desire that distinguishes motivation from volition: when desire lies below this threshold, it is motivation, and when it crosses over, it becomes volition...” Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volition_(psychology)

51.) Quote: “However, we suggest that, to the extent that “misattribution” connotes a conscious decision, “misperception” more accurately describes auditory hallucinations. However, we do agree that a decision, on some level, is made about the source of the auditory verbal experience resulting from a mixture of inner thoughts and experiences colliding with ambient noise and Brownian motion. Random noise can increase a system's sensitivity to weak signals through stochastic resonance,51 and it is well known that patients with schizophrenia have “noisier” systems. Coupled with a Bayesian bias based on prior beliefs or delusions,52 the noisy auditory experience could be perceived as voices coming from sources other than self. That is, believing is hearing. In this way, delusions and hallucinations form a bidirectional self-reinforcing system. Thus, we suggest that “misattribution” is not part of the hallucinatory experience, but part of the delusional system used to explain the aberrant experience. We maintain that the failure of N100 to distinguish between self and alien feedback reflects the dysfunction of the efference copy system, which underlies this aberrant experience and not the delusional system built around it. Perhaps because of the interrelationship between delusions and hallucinations, N100 suppression and delusional severity were weakly correlated.” Source: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(3):286-296. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.286. Relationship of Imprecise Corollary Discharge in Schizophrenia to Auditory Hallucinations by Theda H. Heinks-Maldonado, PhD; Daniel H. Mathalon, MD, PhD; John F. Houde, PhD; Max Gray, BA; William O. Faustman, PhD; Judith M. Ford, PhD

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=482221#Abstract

52.) Abstract: “Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls...” Source: Smucny J, Rojas DC, Eichman LC, Tregellas JR (2013) Neural Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention in Schizophrenia. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60606. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060606

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613360/

53.) Abstract: “Schizophrenia encompasses a wide variety of cognitive dysfunctions, a number of which can be understood as deficits of inhibition. To date, no research has examined ‘conditioned inhibition’ in schizophrenia - the ability of a stimulus that signals the absence of an expected outcome to counteract the conditioned response produced by a signal for that outcome (a conditioned excitor)... ... These results demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory learning is impaired in schizophrenia. Such an impairment provides an attractive framework for the interpretation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, we were unable to demonstrate any relationship between the level of conditioned inhibition and medication. Similarly, in the present study it must be emphasised that the available data did not demonstrate any relationship between individual variation in inhibitory learning and the level of positive symptoms as measured by the PANSS. In fact inhibitory learning impairment was relatively greater in participants with a predominantly negative symptom profile and their excitatory learning was also reduced...” Source: He Z, Cassaday HJ, Park SBG, Bonardi C (2012) When to Hold That Thought: An Experimental Study Showing Reduced Inhibition of Pre-trained Associations in Schizophrenia. PLoS ONE 7(7): e42175. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042175

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042175

54.) Quote: “Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attention. However, evidence demonstrating that attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia is lacking. We used a novel method of measuring attention to nonpredictive (and thus irrelevant) cues in a causal learning test (Le Pelley ME, McLaren IP. Learned associability and associative change in human causal learning. Q J Exp Psychol B. 2003;56:68–79) to assess whether healthy adults and people with schizophrenia discriminate previously predictive and nonpredictive cues. In a series of experiments with independent samples, we demonstrated: (1) when people with schizophrenia who had severe positive symptoms successfully distinguished between predictive and nonpredictive cues during training, they failed to discriminate between predictive and nonpredictive cues relative to healthy adults during subsequent testing and (2) learning about nonpredictive cues was correlated with more severe positive symptoms scores in schizophrenia. These results suggest that positive symptoms of schizophrenia are related to increased attention to nonpredictive cues during causal learning. This deficit in selective attention results in learning irrelevant causal associations and may be the basis of positive symptoms in schizophrenia.” Source: Schizophr Bull (2013) 39 (3): 575-582. Attention to Irrelevant Cues Is Related to Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia by Richard Morris, Oren Griffiths, Michael E. Le Pelley and Thomas W. Weickert

http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/3/575.full

55.) Quote: “Patients with schizophrenia often display unusual language impairments. This is a wide ranging critical review of the literature on language in schizophrenia since the 19th century. We survey schizophrenic lanuage level by level, from phonetics through phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.” Source: Schizophrenia and the structure of language: The linguists view by Michael A. Covington, Congzhou He, Cati Brown, Lorina Naci, Jonathan T. McClain, Bess Sirmon Fjordbak, James Semple and John Brown

http://www.ai.uga.edu/caspr/litreviewsr-published.pdf

Last edited by stefan on Thu Jul 04, 2013 1:19 pm; edited 124 times in total
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nilian
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 18, 2008 7:20 am
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This is an extremly interesting topic Stefan has touched upon. The source of information for a linguist is a speaker. Deviations from "normal" in the speaker's brain give new insights into our science.
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stefan
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PostPosted: Wed Mar 26, 2008 8:49 am
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Remember this is a metacognitive approach and I sometimes allow myself to speculate when the only source of information is my experience!!!

(Hopefully everybody understand that much of what I write is pure speculation especially when I´m only able to support my claims with my experiences from an illness like schizophrenia and not find any other kind of support from knowledge that more resembles scientific data.)
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nilian
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 3:06 am
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stefan wrote:

Remember this is a metacognitive approach and I sometimes allow myself to speculate when the only source of information is my experience!!!


If asked how do we know about the inner psychological world of a person Freud said something like: we should just ask this person. Very Happy

So ourself as a source of information is a very good thing. One should certainly also search after the special literature on the problem since it gives a neccessary theoretical background as well as with exmoples and expreiences of other peopple. There have been a couple of geniuos in history with serious psychological problems of different art. So Stefan, if you have somet hime to invest in this thing, carry on!
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stefan
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 5:31 am
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Maybe this will interest some of you not because my ability to think is worth mentioning, but because I also have my experiences as a source of information.

Most of my thinking consists of loose associations like when a "normal" person tries to come up with new ideas by brainstorming and of course most of these ideas are wrong, but maybe not all of them...

(Didn´t notice this before, but I don´t think you can lable me a linguist although I´m very interested to learn more about speech perception.)
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nilian
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 2:48 pm
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"I don´t think you can lable me a linguist" - Stefan, in this linguistic forum, if you write posts then you are a linguist. Laughing

Some things are easier to achieve than we imagine... Wink
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davis



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PostPosted: Fri Jun 10, 2011 10:53 pm
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What can we learn from experiences like these? Some of what I write in my attempts to understand can maybe at the best make people think because I often find it very hard to understand what scientists like Crow


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stefan
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 11, 2011 5:36 am
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Hi Davis, do you think that this is an interesting subject to explore?
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stefan
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 03, 2011 9:44 am
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Hi Roho, can you please clarify how you with certainty can make a statement like this. What Michael D. Hunter writes about functional auditory hallucinations seems to be worth while exploring to me.

Stefan
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deborah55



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PostPosted: Thu Oct 27, 2011 8:15 am
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i think this is very interesting subject to explore for linguists, I'm impressed
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